How to fetch image from database in PHP and display in table

fetch image from database in PHP

Fetching image from database in PHP and display in table is similar to fetch any data from database and show in HTML Table.

We generally store image at server and its path on database table.

We are considering an example of products to demonstrate the purpose.

Steps to fetch images and data from database is as below

  1. Create MySql Database table
  2. Upload image and store data in database table using PHP
  3. Fetch image and data from database using PHP

1 Create MySql Database Table

For this we have create a table product in ebhor database.

2 Upload image and store data in database table using PHP

Uploading images and data are not discussed here.

After uploading images and data our product table will look like this.

PHPMyAdmin Product Table
PHPMyAdmin Product Table

We are providing above data for copy and create your database

Here Image column contains the url where image is uploded.

You can learn more about PHP and MySql.

3 Fetch image and data from database using PHP

As you already seen images are stored in server file system and its path is stored in database.

To access data from database we can use either Procedural way using mysqli or PDO or object oriented way.

we will consider here procedural way to access data.

This is a simple PHP MySql select statment.

Steps to access mysql database with PHP

  1. Connect PHP with MySql using mysqli_connect("localhost", "root", "", "ebhor"); localhost means database is in same system, username is root, password is “” and ebhor is database name.
  2. check connection established or not if $connect==false means connection is not established.
  3. Create a query and pass it to mysqli_query(.....)
  4. It will return result in $result.
  5. if there are results then iterate each row and print in tabular format

By iterating mysqli_fetch_array($result) we are fetching row one by one and showing in tabular format.

To fetch image from url we use HTML tag <img src =""> as below

Read More

  1. PHP MySQL CRUD Tutorial with MySqli and PHPMyAdmin
  2. How to Export and Import MySql Database using phpMyAdmin
  3. PDO in PHP

Resources:

Photo by Pok Rie from Pexels
Image by ADMC from Pixabay
Photo by C D-X on Unsplash
Photo by ATC Comm Photo from Pexels

How to remove special characters from string in PHP

Characters other than alphabet [A-Za-z] and digits [0-9] are known as special characters like symbols & ^ % @.

Removing special characters from PHP string is very easy by using php library functions like

  1. preg_replace()
  2. str_replace()

Lets see them one by one

Using preg_replace() to remove special characters from string in PHP

PHP provides preg_replace() functions to remove special characters from string.

Lets see how to remove special characters from string in PHP using Examples.

Example: remove special characters from string in PHP.

Output

Here preg_replace() is used for regular expression search and replace the string.

Syntax of preg_replace is

preg_replace($pattern, $replacement, $string)

$pattern: regular expression to find in string

$replacement: $pattern will be replaced by this

$string: The string on which we will find pattern and replace it.

Example: Remove special characters from string in PHP.

Output

In above example

preg_replace('/[^A-Za-z0-9 ]/', '', $str);

Here $pattern is regular expression that specifies.

Consider A-Z and a-Z and 0-9 characters and a space (” “) in $str string.

Other then this replace any character with ”.

Example: Remove special characters except ! and . from string in PHP.

Output

In above example two special characters are part of string ! and . we dont want to remove these two special characters for that we have included these two characters in pattern.

Using str_replace to remove special characters from PHP String

Syntax of str_replace is

str_replace($search, $replace, $string);
str_replace($search, $replace, $string, $count)

$search: The character or string you want to search on $string

$replace: $search will be replaced with $replace

$string: on given string we will apply search and replace

$count: Keep record of how many replacement performed.

Example: PHP program to remove special characters from string except dot

Output

In above example we have created a character array of special characters and we want to replace with “”.

Result of str_replace() is stored in $str1.

Removing html elements from PHP string

Output

In above example there are three html elements values showing as a part of string &bsp; &gt; &lt;

To remove this we used preg_replace("/&#?[a-z0-9]{2,8};/i","",$str);

This regular expression is taken from StackOverFlow

Removing comma and currency symbol from PHP String

Removing comma from currency

Output

Removing comma (,) and currency symbol from PHP string currency

Output

Using preg_replace() to remove currency symbol.

Output

If you want to remove only currency symbol and dont want to remove comma (,) then you can use following regular expression with preg_replace().

preg_replace('/[^0-9,]/s', "", $str);

How to find String length in java with and without string method

String length in java

Get String length with String length() method

To find String length in java there is a method length().

This method is used to get length of string.

Signature of length method is:

Length method returns the length of the string. it counts the number of unicode in string.

This is very simple way to get length of a string in java.

Output

Finding the length of unicode string in java

Here we are considering hindi language stored in String. We use length() to get the string length.

You can take any unicode character to check length string length() works properly.

Output

Finding the String length in java of unicode characters

Here we have stored a unicode value in String and finding its length.

Output

Using toCharArray() to find String length in java

toCharArray() is another method in String class to convert String to character array.

Signature of toCharArray() is

In above program String is converted to character array using toCharArray().

Character array is have a field length. This length property finds the length of character array.

Output

Using Function to find the String length in java

In above program you find length of Java String in main method.

Here we have created two static methods length() and length1().

these two methods are accepting string and getting its length.

Using Recursion to find String length

Here we are using recursion to find the length of string.

When a function is called it is checking the lenth of string if string is empty then return zero else call again itself with adding one to return value.

On each recursive call we are eliminating first character from string.

Output

Hope you learn and understand how to get length of string as we discussed different ways to find string length.

Keep Reading other topics.

PHP String

String means set of characters or letters or combination in single or double quotes. Like ‘PHP Language’.

If you placed the number in the single quote or double quotes it’s also a string. Like ‘12345’.

Similarly, special characters symbol whatever if you write it in the single or double quote it’s become a string.

In PHP a single letter or character also a string. Like ‘A’

Creating and accessing String

In PHP language whatever you write in a code with a single or double quotation, it creates the string.

To declare a string always use the quotation, if you forget to mention quotes give you an error.

Syntax of String

Note: gettype() is a predefine PHP function which used to know the datatype of any variable. In this above example gettype() function return string.

Example

Output

PHP is a very good language and easy to learn And it supports many other languages like HTML, CSS, JAVASCRIPT and so on.

Explanation
You can write a string with single quotes or double quotes both are equal. In above example $var and $var2 both hold string value.

Another Syntax of String:

Explanation

In the first example, we want to print I’d buy myself, in this case, we never declare this string with the single quote because in the original value there has a single quote already.

Means in PHP language you never used the same type of quotes so start with the double quote.

In the second example, it returns Sum of 2 & 4 is $sum because we declare the string with single quote and variable also treated as a string in the single quote so it’s can’t return the value of $sum.

So never used the variable in a single quote but in the third example, we receive the value of $sum because double quote treats a variable like a variable so we can receive the value of any variable, not the variable name.

And in the fourth example, we used two type of quotation to declare a string. Because above example, we need to use nested quotes under the main quotes.

And in PHP language does not support the same type of quotes as a nested quote.

So in this type of case start with the single quote and used the double quote as a nested quote or start with double quotes and used the single quote as a nested quote.


If you don’t maintain these things PHP gives you an error.

Avoiding the single quote double quote complexity you also used escape sequences (\). PHP used \ symbols as an escape sequence.
Using this escape sequence you also rewrite those strings like this,

Syntax of String with \:

Another way to Create String (HereDoc):
In complicated cases, you need to create the large string.

And there you have to follow all rules of quotation or escape sequence to avoid error.


In PHP here has a new way to write the complex string with the simple manner.
3.1 Syntax of HereDoc:

Output

This is another way of showing String Delimiters The value is Hello World
This is another way of showing String Delimiters The value is Hello World

Explanation
<<< is a heredoc symbol. After <<< symbol an identifier is provided, then a new line.

Then you write your string and complete the string the same identifier again to close.

The closing identifier must be same as beginning in the first line and the identifier must follow the same case.

Identifier only starts with character or string or underscore (_) means it must contain only alphanumeric characters.

In above example, EOF and tutorial are the identifiers.

String functions in PHP- uses and examples

Now list some String functions in PHP to handle and manipulate string in PHP.

All functions explained are inbuilt PHP functions also known as predefined string functions in PHP.

These functions are defined during creation of PHP.


sterlen() Length of String

sterlen() function is used to get the entire length of the string. If there is space in between two words then it will count that space as well.

Result:

Result:

str_word_count() -Word Count


str_word_count() function will give you the exact number of words that a string have.

Result:

Result:

strrev() -String Reverse


strrev() function is used to reverse the entire string.

Result:

trim() -String Remove


Remove whitespace (or other characters) from the beginning and end of a string

Output

Another example

ltrim() => Remove whitespace (or other characters) from the beginning of a string
rtrim() => Remove whitespace (or other characters) from the end of a string

ucfirst()- Convert first letter into uppercase


convert first letter into uppercase of any string

strtoupper() -to upper case


This function converts the string in upper case

strtolower() -Converts string to lowercase


convert whole string into lowercase

chr() -Return character from ASCII code


returns any character or letter and also special character from their equivalent ASCII Code

implode() -array to string


Implode function combine all array element with a string

String- convert to string

Output

explode() -string to an array

Explode function split a string and return all value into an array.

Array- String to array conversion

Output

strpos() -find the text position in string

strpos() function is used to find the particular text in a string.

If while searching in the string it founds the text, then it will give the position of that word in first search match or if the particular text is not found then it will return FALSE value.

Also first position of any character in string is 0 not 1.

Result:

str_replace() -Replace string

str_replace() function is used to replace some characters that are there in the strings.

Example:

Result

Inheritance in Java-Types and Examples

Inheritance in Java is the process of acquiring the properties of one class object into another class object.

It allows the hierarchical classification. Inheritance also provides the facility of reusability.

In Java programming, a class that is inherited is called a superclass or sub class or parent class and class that does the inheriting is called sub class or child class.     

If we want to inherit a class, we simply incorporate the definition of one class into another class by using extends keyword.

General form of a class declaration that inherits a super class

Type of Inheritance in Java

There are following type of inheritance

  1. Single level Inheritance
  2. Multi-level Inheritance
  3. Hierarchical Inheritance
  4. Hybrid Inheritance

Note: Java does not support multiple inheritance.        

Single level Inheritance

Property of single level inheritance is as below

Single level Inheritance in Java
Fig:java single inheritance
  • One Super class and one sub class
  • Sub class inherits the features of super class

Write a program for single level inheritance.

Output

Multi level Inheritance

In multi level inheritance inheritance exists in multiple level.

Multi level Inheritance  in Java
Multilevel Inheritance
  • One Parent Class
  • It has a child class
  • Child has again child class

This process may continue and each child class inherits feature of all parent class.

program for Multi level inheritance in Java

Result

Hierarchical Inheritance

One Parent class can have multiple child class this type of inheritance is known as Hierarchical Inheritance.

  • One Parent class
  • Multiple Child class
  • Each Child Inherits the feature of Parent
hierarchical inheritance in Java
java hierarchical inheritance

Write a program for Hierarchical Inheritance.

Result

Hybrid  Inheritance

Combination of two or more Inheritance type is known as Hybrid Inheritance

Hybrid  Inheritance in Java
java Hybrid Inheritance

Note: A subclass can access the public member of super class. A subclass can’t access the private member of super class.

Super Class Cant Access Sub Class Member

A sub class can access all the public member of super class but reverse is not true. Super class cannot access sub class data.

Result

A sub class can’t access the private member of super class.   

Result

PHP while loop syntax and example

While loop in PHP is also used for repeating statements in PHP.

PHP while loop check for condition if condition is true then code inside body of loop is get executed.

while – As long conditions is true, it loop back again and again through block of code.

Syntax:
while (condition is true) {
code to be executed;
}

Example: Write a program to use while loop in PHP.

The increment and decrement while loop count variable can used only inside loop.

Like here $a++ is used to increment the value of $a.

programmer has to take care of this otherwise while loop will be infinite.

Result:

The number is: 11
The number is: 12
The number is: 13

PHP Form Handling with Examples

PHP Form method is used to sending data from browser to server.

Two types of methods are there GET and POST.

$_GET and $_POST are used to receive value from the form method.

$_GET and $_POST are the global variables so declare it with uppercase otherwise this will not work.

Syntax of GET Method in PHP:

Output:
Bill

Syntax of POST Method in PHP:

Output:
Bill

Note: by default form method is get.

If any user does not declare method attribute in the form tag then value send by getting method automatically.

If any users declare form method attribute value post and receive value in the server using $_GET variable then it does not work same as vice versa.

Get and Post method both are same and used for the same purpose but there has some difference.

Html/Text Response from PHP

Sending any kind of data from the form all go as a string type.

Program: PHP Program to submit user details in PHP form and show in PHP HTML table format.

Output

User Form in php
User Form
User Form in PHP
User Response

Send JSON Response from PHP Form


JSON is another way to use for exchange data format between web client and server.

Enabling HTML forms to submit JSON directly simplifies implementation as it enables backend services to operate by accepting a single input format that is what’s more able to encode richer structure than other form encodings (where the structure has traditional had to be emulated).

Form’s type attribute value set application/ json to transmit JSON data from the form.

Example: Form submit in php to send user details and get PHP JSON response.

Output

PHP Form to enter user details
PHP JSON OUTPUT

Explanation:
By default input type is text.

Value send from the form by method and json_encode is a function which exchanges PHP server data into JSON format.

Example: How to Upload an Image in PHP

Output:

File Upload Example in PHP
Uploaded file detail in PHP

Explanation:
Upload any kind of file through form need set enctype attribute value with multipart/form-data. It means multi-type file can upload from Form.


Next always use post method in form because get method only sends 1kb data.


Next file value receives always in the server via $_FILES[] global array whatever form method in form, Which has 5 parameters name size type tmp_name and error.


Name index return name value of the uploaded file.
Size index returns size value of the uploaded file in bytes.


Type index return uploaded file type value like image/jpg for jpg extension file, application/pdf for pdf file, application/docx for document file, plain/text for text file etc.

Tmp_name index returns the uploaded file location. In server, there has a tmp folder initially where all the uploaded files are stored temporarily.


Error index return by default 0 otherwise if the size or any other index value return any error then error index return 1 or 2

Want Upload pdf file then only change the condition of above example

Example: How to Download a File in PHP


Explanation:
Provide file name to download,set its content type.

on calling url it will get downloaded.

Business Studies Class 12 Notes Marketing Management

1 What is Marketing

Marketing refers to things to do a business enterprise undertakes to promote the shopping for or promoting of a product or service.

Marketing consists of advertising, selling, and turning in merchandise to buyers or different businesses.

Some advertising and marketing are accomplished via associates on behalf of a company.

Professionals who work in a corporation’s advertising and marketing and advertising departments are looking for to get the interest of key viable audiences thru advertising.

Promotions are centered to positive audiences and may additionally contain celeb endorsements, catchy phrases or slogans, memorable packaging or image designs and usual media publicity

2 Importance Of Marketing

A. Marketing Is an Effective Way of Engaging Customers

 It’s vital for your enterprise to interact its customers. Marketing is a device to maintain the dialog going.

Engaging clients is exclusive from pushing your offers. Engaging entails furnishing your clients with applicable statistics about your merchandise and your enterprise as well.

It’s all about growing sparkling content. Tell your clients what they don’t know.

Let it be fascinating and well worth their time. Social media is one of the exceptional structures the place you can have interaction your customers.

Some groups use quick movies and different humor-laden hints to interact their client base.

By attractive your customers, advertising offers them an experience of belonging.

B. Marketing Helps to Build and Maintain the Company’s Reputation

The boom and lifestyles span of your commercial enterprise is positively correlated to your business’s reputation.

Hence, it’s truthful to say your popularity determines your company equity.

A majority of advertising things to do are geared in the direction of constructing the company fairness of the company.

Your business’s popularity is constructed when it successfully meets the expectations of its customers.

Such an enterprise is viewed an accountable member of the community.

The clients emerge as proud to be related with your products.

 Marketers use nice communication, branding, PR and CSR techniques to make certain that a business’s recognition is maintained.

C. Marketing Helps to Build a Relationship Between a Business and Its Customers

Businesses want to construct a relationship of believe and grasp with their customers.

How does advertising and marketing set up this relationship?

Marketing lookup segments must be based totally on demographics, psychographics, and patron behavior.

Segmentation helps the commercial enterprise meet the desires of its clients as a result gaining their trust.

The product group ensures the commercial enterprise grants what’s promised at the proper time.

This makes the clients company loyal. Loyal clients will have the self-belief to purchase extra merchandise from you.

The have faith and grasp between the enterprise and its clients make your industrial things to do extra fruitful.

D. Marketing Is a Communication Channel Used to Inform Customers

Marketing informs your clients about the merchandise or offerings you’re imparting them.

Through marketing, the clients get to comprehend about the cost of the products, their utilization and extra data that would possibly be useful to the customers.

It creates company consciousness and makes the enterprise stand out.

There’s stiff opposition in the market and you want to be a steady voice to persuade the customers.

Inform your clients of reductions and different aggressive hints you intend to use.

Through communication, advertising and marketing helps your enterprise come to be a market leader.

This publish explains extra about how to achieve an aggressive advantage.

E. Marketing Helps to Boosts Sales:

 Marketing makes use of unique approaches to promote your merchandise or services.

Once a product has been advertised, it’s already on the radar and this will increase your possibilities of promoting it.

Might also desire to strive yourmerchandise or offerings and this will set off a buy decision.

When clients are completely happy about your merchandise or services, they end up your manufacturer ambassadors barring your knowledge.

They will unfold the phrase and your income will begin to increase.

Ensure you provide super merchandise and offerings to complement your advertising and marketing efforts.

F. Marketing Aids in Providing Insights About Your Business

Every marketer is aware they want for focused on the proper audience.

 However, you should have the proper content material to share with such an audience.

Your advertising and marketing techniques can assist you set up what commercial enterprise messaging will persuade the goal audience.

At this point, you have to take a look at extraordinary messages and see what works.

Once you have examined one-of-a-kind units of messaging on the goal audience, you will discover a potential baseline for your advertising and marketing efforts.

It acts as a metric and gives the perception wished to make you keep away from guesswork.

G. Marketing Helps Your Business to Maintain Relevance

Every marketer is familiar with the want for disrupting an attainable consumer’s opinion about different products.

But don’t make a mistake of taking this danger for granted.

Most corporations count on that they will continually stay the client’s favorite company due to the fact up to now the consumer has by no means complained.

This is the incorrect mindset. You want to locate approaches to continue to be at the pinnacle of the client’s mind.

Every relationship wishes to be maintained. Marketing helps your commercial enterprise to hold a precise relationship with clients by way of making you continue to be relevant.

Don’t focal point on gaining new clients earlier than addressing the want to hold the current ones.

H. Marketing Creates Revenue Options

During the startup phase, your selections are sparse in view that you’re mainly cash-strapped.

This limits your options. As your advertising techniques generate greater clients and income opportunities, you’ll commence having options.

Having picks is related to having a quality battle chest. Having alternatives will supply you the braveness you want to penetrate new markets.

You will have the freedom to begin letting go of clients who are too traumatic to your sanity and well-being.

Without marketing, you will be pressured to precede working with purchasers who you have outgrown and are paying you peanuts.

I. Marketing Helps the Management Team to Make Informed Decisions

Every enterprise is confronted with issues such as to what, when, for whom and how a lot to produce.

A complicated and tedious method decide your business’s survival. As a result, companies closely remember on advertising mechanisms to make these decisions.

Why need to you remember on advertising and marketing mechanisms?

These mechanisms serve as a dependable hyperlink between your enterprise and society.

They domesticate people’s mind, teach the public and persuade them to buy.

3 Process Of Marketing

A. Choosing a goal market

B. Getting, maintaining as nicely as developing the customer

• that is, make certain that the goal clients buy the firm ‘s product, make sure that they hold their clients comfy with the merchandise and appeal to new clients so that the company can grow.

C. Create, improve and talk most reliable values to the clients

4 Functions Of Marketing

Image

A Promotion

 When humans map out their advertising goals, advertising is commonly at or close to the pinnacle of that list.

Getting your title in the front of potential customers, constructing company cognizance and elevating your company’s profile are principal priorities for each and every advertising department.

Promotional techniques regularly overlap with different commercial enterprise gadgets and awareness-building activities, such as advertising and marketing and public relations.

From an advertising and marketing perspective, promoting can encompass the entirety from content material advertising and marketing and electronic mail advertising and marketing to social media and influencer marketing.

We don’t want to inform you how essential these efforts are to inbound advertising and producing certified leads.

It’s no marvel advertising has lengthy been regarded a quintessential factor of the advertising mix.

B Selling

 We’ve frequently recommended readers about the risks of coming on too sturdy and salesy with your advertising content.

Your danger alienating your goal target audience by using persistently handing over overt income pitches in your content material and making it appear like your solely intention is to get humans to purchase something from you.

The reality is phase of each and every marketer’s job is to promote their merchandise to clients — ideally, though, it’s carried out with greater nuance.

Every advertising decision, from your manufacturer messaging to your marketing campaign themes, ought to help the last intention of growing sales.

Once you’ve grabbed the interest of a conceivable customer, whether or not that’s a customer or B2B prospect, entrepreneurs want to go to work nurturing that lead and guiding them via the income funnel so they’re primed to make a buy when they subsequently make contact with your income team.

That capability consistently making the case for your company and regularly incorporating greater product-centric speak me factors in your advertising communications.

By the time they’re prepared to talk with an income associate, potentialities need to understand how your items or offerings stack up towards competing products.

C Product management

 Designing a new product that higher meets patron wants and fills a hole in the market doesn’t show up by way of twist of fate or sheer luck.

It takes a lot of thorough market lookup to determine out what human beings favor and how to supply the exceptional product possible.

Marketing groups may additionally become aware of new increase possibilities when:

  • Speaking with prospects.
  • Running competitor analysis.
  • Incorporating comments gleaned from patron guide offerings into advertising strategies.
  • In these cases, advertising and marketing lookup is the furnace that fuels product development. Who higher is familiar with your goal market than your advertising team?

D. Marketing records management

Strategic advertising is pushed by way of data. Every correct marketer is aware of that the greater statistics you can acquire about your goal customer, enterprise rivals and market trends, the greater profitable your advertising efforts will be.

All of that juicy data is as exact as gold, so there’s no motive to preserve it locked away in some silo.

One of the cores (yet once in a while overlooked) features of advertising is to gather this precious data, distill it down to motion gadgets and beneficial takeaways and share it with different departments that may discover it useful.

Sales teams, for instance, can continually use greater in-depth advertising insights to assist them refine their pitches to:

Address the cutting-edge enterprise trends.

Respond to competitor messaging.

Speak without delay to the urgent client concerns.

E Pricing

 Marketing lookup can additionally inform how manufacturers set the fee of a product.

Effective pricing is as a lot artwork as it is science, and manufacturers want to discover that candy spot that balances how clients cost your items or offerings with the fee of manufacturing and transport as nicely as accounting for the present-day rate of competing products.

The perceived cost of your manufacturer without delay affects your pricing approach — simply appear at the fee distinction between a luxurious trend manufacturer like Hermès and extra budget-conscious outlets like Old Navy.

The countless thousand greenback charge tag disparity for a single purse can’t be chalked up to manufacturing fees and satisfactory manage alone.

Hermes clients are paying as a great deal for the manufacturer as they are the product itself.

Marketing lookup sheds mild on your brand’s popularity and helps you higher apprehend how a whole lot your goal target market values your brand.

That’s on pinnacle of all the competitor evaluation and enterprise lookup essential to placing an honest asking charge for your wares.

F Financing

 Now we’re digging into some of the less-discussed features of marketing, though they’re nevertheless very essential to overarching commercial enterprise objectives.

Financing might also no longer at first appear like a pinnacle difficulty for your advertising group to fear about,

however suppose about it this way: If your branch can’t impervious area in the price range to completely aid your subsequent advertising campaign, how are you going to meet your goals?

When humans suppose about financing, they regularly center of attention on the up-front fees of getting a new enterprise off the ground.

But, in reality, financing is an ongoing subject for commercial enterprise proprietors and business enterprise leaders, who want to make tough budgeting choices yrs. after 12 months and quarter after quarter.

By supporting generate extra revenue, extend into new markets and attain extra practicable customers, advertising groups can show their cost to the corporation at large. And that makes it less difficult to impervious the financing they want on a departmental level.

Effective advertising administration is key in that regard. An advertising software that receives the most cost out of handy sources and applies the proper techniques to have interaction and nurture certified leads can exhibit simple ROI.

Successful advertising endeavor additionally helps corporations impenetrable funding from 0.33 events — say getting a mortgage from a financial institution or a funding from a challenge capital firm.

Any organization, whether or not it’s an unbiased company or an economic institution, desires to see that agencies have a complete advertising and marketing sketch that will assist construct the brand, faucet into markets and produce healthful income over the lengthy run.

G Distribution

 “Distribution?” you might also be asking yourself, “isn’t that furnish chain management’s problem?”

Yes, however the place you promote your merchandise or offerings and how you get them into your customer’s fingers is additionally an advertising problem, whether or not you’re speaking about digital or bodily distribution.

Choosing the proper distribution channels comes down to appreciation who your goal client is, how they view your manufacturer and the place they anticipate to discover you — all marketing-centric issues.

You would by no means assume to locate a Rolex watch for sale at the Dollar Store, after all. Those manufacturers signify two very one-of-a-kind market demographics.

Marketing managers and their grant chain counterparts want to be aligned on every occasion a new product, advertising or marketing campaign is launched so corporations can have all of their distribution geese in a row.

If entrepreneurs do their job well, they will generate a ton of buzz main up to that product launch or promotional event, pushing consumer demand to the limit.

That advertising win can rapidly flip into a PR nightmare if the furnish chain isn’t organized to meet demand.

5 Meaning and Concept of Marketing and Selling

Marketing is an extensive term. It refers to a massive set of things to do of which promoting is simply one part.

A marketer earlier than making the sale does a lot of different things to do such as planning the type, sketch of the product, the fee and deciding on the distribution stores at which the identical would be available.

  • Selling: refers to the sale of items or provider via publicity, promoting and salesmanship. The title of the product is transferred from vendor to buyer. The whole center of attention in promoting is to covert the product into cash.

6 Difference between Selling & Marketing

IMAGE

7 Marketing Mix

The advertising combine refers to the set of actions, or tactics, that an employer makes use of to promote its company or product in the market.

The 4Ps make up a traditional advertising and marketing combine – Price, Product, Promotion and Place. However, nowadays, the advertising combine more and more consists of countless different Ps like Packaging, Positioning, People and even Politics as crucial combine factors

8 Elements of Marketing Mix

A Price

refers to the cost that is put for a product. It relies upon on charges of production, section targeted, capacity of the market to pay, grant – demand and a host of different direct and oblique factors.

There can be various kinds of pricing strategies, every tied in with a normal commercial enterprise plan.

Pricing can additionally be used a demarcation, to differentiate and beautify the photograph of a product.

B  Product

refers to the object clearly being sold. The product ought to supply a minimal degree of performance;

in any other case even the fine work on the different factors of the advertising combine might not do any good.

C Place

refers to the factor of sale. In each industry, catching the eye of the purchaser and making it handy for her to purchase it is the fundamental purpose of a suitable distribution or ‘place’ strategy.

 Retailers pay a top class for the proper location. In fact, the mantra of a profitable retail commercial enterprise is ‘location, location, location’.

D Promotion

This refers to all the things to do undertaken to make the product or provider acknowledged to the consumer and trade.

This can encompass advertising, phrase of mouth, press reports, incentives, commissions and awards to the trade.

It can additionally encompass patron schemes, direct marketing, contests and prizes.

9 Branding

Branding, via definition, is an advertising exercise in which a business enterprise creates a name, image or plan that is without problems identifiable as belonging to the company.

This helps to pick out a product and distinguish it from different merchandise and services.

Branding is essential because no longer solely is it what makes a memorable influence on shoppers however it permits your clients and consumers to comprehend what to anticipate from your company.

It is a way of distinguishing yourself from the opponents and clarifying what it is you provide that makes you the higher choice. Your manufacturer is constructed to be an actual illustration of who you are as a business, and how you want to be perceived.

There are many areas that are used to enhance a company which includes advertising, client service, promotional merchandise, reputation, and logo.

All of these factors work collectively to create one special and (hopefully) attention-grabbing expert profile

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

  1. Why is advertising referred to as a social process?

Ans: Marketing is considered as a social process, whereby human beings’ alternate items and offerings for cash or something of price to them.

2 Distinguish between promoting thinking and advertising thinking of marketing

Ans: (i) Selling notion Firms trust that aggressive promoting and promotional efforts will persuade a patron to purchase a product.

(ii) Marketing thought Customers’ wants and customers’ pride is the key to success of an enterprises.

3. What is intended by using promoting idea of marketing?

Ans: Firms consider that aggressive promoting and promotional efforts will persuade a client to purchase a product.

4.Identify and give an explanation for the advertising and marketing administration philosophy which implies that merchandise and offerings are offered no longer purely due to the fact of their fantastic or manufacturer name, however due to the fact they fulfill a unique want of a customer.

Ans: The advertising administration philosophy referred right here is ‘Marketing concept’. This thought emphasis that in the long-run, income can be maximized by using figuring out and enjoyable the wishes of existing and manageable customers. Therefore, patron delight will become the focal factor of all commercial enterprise decisions.

5. Nisha, a college bag manufacturer, determined to enhance the product for earnings maximization and thus, brought a water bottle holder to the present design.

(i)Identify the advertising and marketing administration philosophy adopted by using Nisha.

(ii)Explain this philosophy on the groundwork of (a) Main focal point and (b) Means and ends

Ans: (i) Product idea or philosophy Firms which observe the product concept, advocate that the way to recognize commercial enterprise dreams is by using making excessive excellent products. These companies manufacture the merchandise of highest quality. Nisha is attempting to convey enhancement in quality, with the aid of corporation a new feature, i.e., including a water bottle holder in the bag.

(ii)

 (a) Main center of attention the essential center of attention of this thinking is to enhance the fantastic of products. The entrepreneurs now believed that practicable alternate would be realized when the merchandise is of excessive quality. Thus, the company now centered on making top of the line merchandise and enhancing them overtime.

(b) Means Product improvement.

Ends Profit thru enhancement in product quality.

6. Mansi, a shoe producer for faculty students, determined to maximize her income by way of producing and distributing at giant scale and thereby decreasing the Average Cost of production.

(i)Identify the advertising administration philosophy adopted by means of Mansi.

(ii) Explain this philosophy or notion on the groundwork of

(a) Main center of attention          

 (b) Means and ends

Ans: (i) Production thinking or philosophy.

(ii) (a) Main focal point Main center of attention of this idea is to maximize the extent of product.

(b) Means Availability and affordability of product.

Ends Earning income via giant scale manufacturing and distribution.

7. Explain market planning, product designing and improvement as features of marketing.

or

Explain any three features of marketing

or

Explain any two features of marketing.  

or

Explain the following features of marketing.

(i)Marketing planning (ii)Product designing and improvement

or

Explain the following features of marketing

(i)Gathering and analyzing market information

(ii) Customer help services. 

Ans:  The major features of advertising are as follows:

(i) Gathering and analyzing market facts A marketer has to acquire data about the market. Gathering and analyzing market facts helps in figuring out the desires of the customers. It types the foundation for product development. It additionally helps in figuring out the opportunities, threats, strengths and weaknesses of the organisation.

(ii) Market planning the marketer develops fabulous advertising plans to seize or decorate the current market share. It offers the pointers to obtain the advertising and marketing objectives, e.g., a marketer of color TVs, having 2% of modern-day market share in the country, ambitions at improving his market share *0 20% in the subsequent three years.

(iii) Product designing and improvement Product designing and improvement is worried with watching for customers’ needs, creating new merchandise and enhancing the present merchandise so as to meet the expectations of customers, e.g., when we sketch to purchase any product say a motorbike, we now not solely see its points like cost, mileage, and so on however additionally the design, shape, style, etc.

(iv) Customer guide offerings Customer is the king of modern-day market. So, purchaser pride is the fundamental motto of each and every commercial enterprise firm. Hence, a very essential feature of advertising administration relates to growing client help offerings such as after sale services, dealing with client complaints, buying credit score services, upkeep services, technical services, and client information, etc. All these offerings purpose at imparting most pleasure to the clients which is the key to success in cutting-edge days.

8. Explain the position of advertising in a firm.

Ans: By advertising orientation, the company tries to focal point on desires and desires of the customers. Every association desire to stay longer and develop. If this happens, the motive of setting up the association is fulfilled. Marketing helps in survival and increase of the firm.

9. What is intended by means of manufacturing notion of marketing?

Ans: Production notion is based totally on the faith that earnings may want to be maximized through producing at massive scale, thereby decreasing the Average Cost of production. A massive wide variety of companies accept as true with that it is effortless to change the merchandise if they have been extensively on hand at a cheap price. Thus, availability and affordability have been regarded the key to success.

10. What is intended through promoting notion of marketing?

Ans: Firms accept as true with that aggressive promoting and promotional efforts will persuade a client to purchase a product. It used to be assumed that the clients will no longer purchase enough, except they are safely satisfied and prompted to do so.

Therefore, aggressive promoting and promotional efforts are made to persuade the customers. The use of promotional strategies such as advertising, private promoting and income advertising have been viewed necessary for promoting of products.

11. What is intended by way of product idea of marketing?

Ans: Consumers pick merchandise with ideal quality, overall performance and features.

The groups who accept as true with in the philosophy of product thinking are of the opinion that if the high-quality of items or offerings is of correct standard, the clients can effortlessly be attracted toward it.

The foundation of this wondering is that the clients get attracted toward the merchandise of precise quality.

On the foundation of this philosophy, agencies direct their advertising and marketing efforts to make bigger the fantastic and points of their product.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:

1.Define advertising and marketing and nation any three features of marketing.

or

What is intended by using marketing? State any three functions of marketing.

Ans:  Marketing is the sum complete of all these things to do which go items and offerings from the producers to the consumers.

According to Philip Kotler, ‘Marketing is that social system via which man or woman and companies achieve what they want and choose thru developing choices and freely changing merchandise and offerings of fee with others.

The three essential features of advertising and marketing are:

(i) Marketing planning the marketer develops gorgeous advertising plans to seize or beautify the current market share.

It gives the recommendations to obtain the advertising objectives, e.g., a marketer of coloration TVs, having 2% of modern market share in the country, objectives at bettering his market share *0 20% in the subsequent three years.

(ii) Production designing and improvement Product designing and improvement is involved with looking forward to customers’ needs, creating new merchandise and enhancing the current merchandise so as to meet the expectations of customers,

e.g., when we design to purchase any product say a motorbike, we no longer only see its elements like cost, mileage, and many others however additionally the design, shape, style, etc.

(iii) Pricing of merchandise It refers to the quantity of cash which the clients have to pay to gain a product.

Price is a necessary aspect affecting the success or failure of a product in the market.

The demand for a product or carrier is associated to its price. Generally, decrease the price, greater would be the demand for the product and vice-versa.

2. Define advertising and marketing management. State any three targets of marketingmanagement.

Ans: According to Philip Kotler, ‘Marketing administration is an artwork and science of selecting goal markets and getting, maintaining and developing clients via creating, turning in and speaking most excellent client values of management’.

It refers to planning, organizing, directing and manipulate of the things to do which facilitate alternate of items and offerings between producers and buyers of merchandise and services.

The three foremost targets of advertising and marketing administration are as follows:

(i) Creation of demand the advertising supervisor continually tries to create the demand no longer by means of unfair potential however via analyzing the wants and desires of the clients and then producing the products, which satisfies the customer’s need.

(ii) Market share Every commercial enterprise company wishes to seize a large share of the market.

Therefore, advertising methods adopted by using advertising supervisor assist to get a large share in the market.

(iii) Goodwill and popularity Marketing administration helps a company in constructing the picture for its merchandise via advertising and marketing excessive quality, caring for purchaser satisfaction, after sale service, easy supply, etc.

3. Explain the following features of marketing

(i)Gathering and analyzing market information

(ii)Product designing and development

(iii)Market planning

(iv) Customer help services

Ans: The principal features of advertising and marketing are as follows:

(i) Gathering and analyzing market statistics A marketer has to acquire statistics about the market.

Gathering and analyzing market statistics helps in figuring out the wishes of the customers.

It types the groundwork for product development. It additionally helps in figuring out the opportunities, threats, strengths and weaknesses of the organization.

(ii) Market planning the marketer develops excellent advertising and marketing plans to seize or decorate the present market share.

It presents the pointers to attain the advertising and marketing objectives,

e.g., a marketer of color TVs, having 2% of contemporary market share in the country, pursuits at bettering his market share *0 20% in the subsequent three years.

(iii) Product designing and improvement Product designing and improvement is involved with looking forward to customers’ needs, creating new merchandise and enhancing the present merchandise so as to meet the expectations of customers,

e.g., when we format to purchase any product say a motorbike, we now not solely see its points like cost, mileage, and so on but additionally the design, shape, style, etc.

(iv) Customer assist offerings Customer is the king of cutting-edge market. So, consumer delight is the foremost motto of each and every commercial enterprise firm.

Hence, a very essential feature of advertising administration relates to creating consumer guide offerings such as after sale services, managing consumer complaints, deciding to buy savings services, preservation services, technical services, and client information, etc.

All these offerings goal at supplying most delight to the clients which is the key to success in present day days.

Business Studies Class 12 Notes Consumer Protection

• As an end result of this, buyers may also be uncovered to dangers due to risky products- that is, he may also be cheated, might also have to pay a greater rate etc.

• Thus; there is a want to supply sufficient safety to buyers towards such practices

1 Importance of Consumer Protection

(from Consumer’s factor of view)

Consumers Ignorance: Majority of buyers are now not conscious of their rights and reliefs reachable to them as an end result of which they are exploited.

In order to store buyers from exploitation, patron safety is needed.

 Unorganized Consumers: In India buyers are nonetheless unorganized and there is lack of purchaser corporations also, accordingly purchaser safety is required.

 Widespread Exploitation of Consumers: Consumers are exploited on massive scale by way of capability of a range of unfair exchange practices and purchaser safety is required to defend them from exploitation.

(From the factor of Business)

Long time period Business Interest: It is constantly in the pastime of the commercial enterprise to maintain its patron satisfied.

Global opposition may want to be received solely after enjoyable customers.

Satisfied clients lead to repeat income and assist in growing purchaser base of business.

 Moral Justification: It is the ethical obligation of any commercial enterprise to take care of customer hobby & keep away from any structure of their exploitation & unfair change practices like faulty & hazardous products, adulteration, false and deceptive advertising, hoardings, black advertising etc.

 Business makes use of Resources of Society: Every commercial enterprise makes use of the sources of the society and as a result it is their accountability to work in the hobby of the society.

 Social Responsibility: A commercial enterprise has social obligations in the direction of a range of organizations like owners, workers, government, clients etc.

Thus, clients ought to be furnished qualitative items at lifelike prices.

 Government Intervention: If a commercial enterprise engages in any shape of unfair exchange practices then authorities takes motion towards it, which adversely impacts its goodwill.

2 CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT, 1986 (CPA, 1986)

A. Set up to shield and promote patron hobbies through a rapid and less expensive redressal of grievances.

B. Recognizes patron rightsRedressal agencies– set up a three-tier business enterprise to tackle purchaser grievances.

3 Meaning of Consumer

A. Any character who buys any items for a consideration. It consists of any consumer of such items with the approval of the buyer.

But it does now not encompass an individual who obtains items for resale or any industrial purpose.

B. Any individual who avails any offerings for a consideration. It consists of any beneficiary of such offerings however it does now not encompass a man or woman who avails such provider for any business purpose.

4 Rights of a Consumer

Consumer Protection Act, 1986 has furnished six rights to the consumers, which are as follows:

  • Right to Safety: Consumer has the proper to be included towards products, offerings which are hazardous to fitness  existence (should use ISI marked digital device).
  •  Right to be Informed: Consumer has proper to have entire records about the product earlier than shopping for it.
  •  Right to choose: Consumer has a proper to pick any product out of the accessible merchandise as per his personal selection
  •  Right to be heard: Consumer has the proper to file a criticism to be heard in case of dissatisfaction with items or offerings (use of complaint cell)
  •  Right to Seek Redressal: Consumer has the proper to get comfort in case the product or provider falls quick of his expectations or is dangerous. He can also be furnished with replacement/removal of defect or compensation for any loss. Various redressal boards are set up through the Govt. at National and State level.
  •  Right to patron education: Consumer has the proper to accumulate expertise and to be properly knowledgeable during life. He has to be made conscious of his rights and reliefs on hand to him in case of the product or carrier falls quick of his exceptions. The Govt. of India has covered customer training in the faculty curriculum &amp; is making use of media to make buyers conscious of their rights.

5 Responsibilities/Duties of a Consumer

A. Consumer Responsibilities:

a. Ask for a money memo: On buy of items or services. This would serve as a proof of the buy made.

b. Be aware: About quite a number items and offerings accessible in the market so that a shrewd and sensible desire can be made

c. Buy solely standardized goods: As they furnish fine assurance. Thus, seem for ISI mark on electrical goods, FPO mark on meals products, Hallmark on earrings etc.

d. Follow manufacturer ‘s instructions: Learn about the dangers related with merchandise and services, and use the merchandise safely.

e. Read labels carefully: So as to have statistics about prices, internet weight, manufacturing and expiry dates, etc.

f. Assert yourself: To make sure that you get an honest deal.

g. Be trustworthy in your dealings: Choose solely from prison items and offerings and discourage unscrupulous practices like black-marketing, hoarding etc.

h. File a grievance in a gorgeous patron forum: In case of a shortcoming in the fine of items bought or offerings availed. Do now not fail to take a motion even when the quantity worried is small.

i. Form purchaser societies: Which would play a lively section in instructing buyers and safeguarding their interests.

j. Respect the environment: Avoid waste, littering and contributing to pollution.

6  The salient features and provisions of consumer protection act,1986

Who Can File A Complaint Under CPA, 1986?

A criticism earlier than the excellent client discussion board can be made by:

a. Any consumer.

b. Any registered customer association.

c. The central or nation government.

d. One or extra buyers on behalf of severa shoppers having equal interest.

e. A prison inheritor or consultant of a deceased consumer.

  • Complaints can be filed and compensation claimed w.r.t:

• Fraudulent practices by way of merchants and manufacturers

• Defective goods

• Deficiency in offerings in connection with 9 offerings such as banking, transportation, insurance, grant of electrical energy and gas, residence construction, clinical service

7 Redressal agencies under consumer protect act, 1986

For the redressal of patron grievances, the act gives a three–tier equipment as:

A. District forum

District discussion board are set up in each district with the aid of the nation concerned. The essential points are:

(a) It consists of a President and two members, one of whom have to be a woman, duly appointed by way of State Govt.

(b) It can get hold of purchaser complaints of now not greater than Rs. 20 lakhs value.

(c) On receiving the complaint, the district discussion board shall refer the grievance to the contrary birthday celebration worried and ship the pattern of items for checking out in a laboratory.

(d) The district discussion board after being at ease that items are faulty or there is some unfair change exercise can problem an order to contrary celebration directing him to both exchange or return the rate or pay compensation. In case the aggrieved birthday party is now not comfy with the order of district forum. He can enchantment earlier than kingdom discussion board inside 30 days of passing an order.

B. State commission

It is set up in every country by using the govt. concerned. The salient elements are:

(a) Each fee consists of a president and it least two contributors appointed by way of kingdom Govt.

(b) Complaints of at least Rs. 20 lakhs however no longer extra than 1 crore can be filed with kingdom commission.

(c) On receiving the complaint, the country fee can additionally refer the criticism to contrary birthday celebration and ship the items for trying out in laboratory.

(d) The nation fee after being blissful can order to contrary birthday celebration to both substitute or repay or pay compensation. In case the aggrieved celebration is now not satisfied, they can attraction earlier than country wide fee inside 30 days of passing an order.

C. National commission

It is setup with the aid of Central Govt. The provisions of act are:

a) It consists of a President and at least four individuals appointed by using Central Govt.

(b) All complaints are pertaining to items and offerings of fee greater than Rs. 1 crore can be filed with country wide commission.

(c) On receiving the complaint, the country wide fee can additionally refer it to contrary birthday celebration and ship items for testing.

(d) The National Commission has the energy to problem orders for change mentor elimination and to pay the compensation for loss.

9 Remedies available to consumers

• Remove defect in items and deficiency in services.

• Replace faulty items with one with no defects

• Refund rate paid

• Pay a real looking quantity of compensation for any loss or damage suffered.

• Pay punitive damages in fantastic circumstances.

• Discontinue unfair/restrictive exchange practice

• Not to provide hazardous items and offerings for sale

• Withdraw hazardous items from sale

• Cease manufacturing hazardous goods

• Pay a quantity to patron welfare fund/ individual (not much less than 5%) to be utilized in the prescribed manner

• Issue corrective commercial to neutralize the impact of deceptive ads.

• Pay sufficient prices to parties.

10 Consumer awareness

Some essential patron corporation and NGO’s engaged in defending client pursuits are:

A. Consumer coordination council, Delhi.

B. Voluntary company in Interest of Consumer Education, Delhi.

C. Mumbai Grahak Panchayat, Mumbai.

D. Consumer Association, Kolkata.

E. Consumer Unity and Trust Society Jaipur.

11 Role of Consumer companies and NGO’s

A. Educating the customary public about purchaser rights by way of organizing coaching programmed, seminars and workshops.

B. Publishing periodical &amp; different publications to instruct consumers.

C. Providing prison help to buyers with the aid of imparting prison recommendation etc.

D. Producing motion pictures or cassettes on meals adulteration, misuse of tablets etc.

E. Filing complaints in fabulous client courts on behalf of consumers.

F. Encouraging customers to take on motion towards unfair change practices.

G. Taking an initiative in submitting instances in customer courts on behalf of consumers.

12 Ways and Means of Consumer Protection

A. Self-Regulation through Business:

• It is in the long-term activity of companies to serve the clients well.

• Socially accountable companies comply with moral requirements and practices in dealing with their customers.

• Many companies have set up their purchaser provider and criticism cells to redress the troubles and grievances of their consumers.

B. Business Associations:

• Examples of associations of trade, commerce and commercial enterprise – Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce of India (FICCI) and Confederation of Indian Industries (CII)

• They have laid down their code of habits which lay down for their participants the recommendations in their dealings with the customers.

C. Consumer Awareness:

• A consumer, who is nicely knowledgeable about his rights and the reliefs on hand to him, would be in a function to increase his voice in opposition to any unfair exchange practices or unscrupulous exploitation.

 • This permits them to apprehend their duties and to protect their interests.

D. Consumer Organizations’:

• Force enterprise companies to keep away from malpractices and exploitation of consumers.

E. Government:

• The most necessary of these policies is the Consumer Protection Act, 1986. The Act presents for three-tier equipment at the district, country and country wide ranges for redressal of client grievances.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. Besides a ‘consumer’, identify any two events who can file a. complaint earlier than the

appropriate patron forum.

or

Who can file a criticism underneath the Consumer Protection Act, 1986?

Ans: A grievance underneath Consumer Protection Act, 1986 can be made by: (Any two)

(i) Any consumer.

(ii) Any registered consumers’ association.

(iii) The Central Government or any State Government.

(iv) One or greater consumers, on behalf of severa customers having the identical interest.

(v)A prison inheritor or consultant of a deceased consumer.

2. How many contributors are required to represent ‘District patron dispute redressal forum’?

Ans: The District Forum consists of a President and two different members, one of whom ought to be a woman:

3. How can Business Associations act as a capability of customer protection?

Ans: Business Associations act as an ability of patron safety as they lay down suggestions for their individuals in dealings with the customers.

4. Give any one comfort handy to a customer who suffers due to consumption of an expired date medicine. 

Ans: Relief reachable to consumer:

(i) To refund the rate paid for the medicine.

(ii) To pay a lifelike quantity of compensation for any loss or damage suffered with the aid of the consumer.

(iii) To withdraw the faulty precise from sale.

5.State how self-rules by means of commercial enterprise acts as an ability of purchaser protection.

Ans: Self-law by using enterprise acts as a ability of customer safety by

  • Establishing moral requirements and practices in dealing with their consumers.

(ii) Setting up their patron carrier and complaint cells to redress the troubles and grievances of their consumers.

6. When can a patron get greater than one comfort for a complaint?

Ans: If the Consumer Court is comfortable about the genuineness of the complaint, a customer can get greater than one alleviation for a complaint.

7. Which type of instances can be filed in the State Commission below the Consumer Protection Act, 1986?    

Ans: Those instances can be filed in the State Commission beneath the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 in which compensation claimed exceeds Rs 20 lakh however does no longer exceed Rs1crore.

8.Which instances can be filed in the National Commission below Consumer Protection Act, 1986.    

Ans: Those instances can be filed in the National Commission below Consumer Protection Act, 1986 in which the fee of the items or offerings in question, alongside with the compensation claimed, exceed? 1 crore.

9. Which claims can be appealable become the Supreme Court below Consumer Act?  

Ans: An order exceeded via the National Commission in a remember of its authentic jurisdiction is appealable earlier than the Supreme Court. Its capability solely these appeals the place the price of items and offerings in question, alongside with the compensation claimed exceed? 1 crore and the place the aggrieved birthday celebration used to be no longer at ease with the order of the National Commission can be taken to the Supreme Court.

10. Who can file a grievance on behalf of a deceased consumer?

Ans: A criminal inheritor or consultant of a deceased consumer.

11. Is self-legislation by means of commercial enterprise critical for customer protection? How?

Ans: Yes, self-law through commercial enterprise is indispensable for customer safety due to the fact it is in their long-term pastime to serve the clients well.

12. Mohit filed a case towards Domestic Collings Ltd in the District Forum, however he was not cozy with the orders of the district forum. Where can he enchantment similarly in opposition to the selections of district forum? 

Ans:  Mohit can similarly enchantment at the State Commission towards the choice of the District Forum.

13.Amrit filed a case in opposition to Volvo Ltd in the State Commission however he used to be no longer comfy with the orders of the State Commission. Name the authority to which he can enchantment towards the choices of State Commission.  

Ans:  Amrit can strategy National Commission to attraction in opposition to the selection of the State Commission.

14.How does a commercial enterprise use self-guideline for patron protection?

Ans: Enlightened commercial enterprise companies recognize that it is in their long-term hobby to serve the clients well.

 Socially accountable companies observe moral requirements and practices in dealing with their customers.

Many companies have set up their consumer provider centers and complaint cells to redress the issues and grievances of their customers.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. How are customer grievances redressed by way of the three-tier equipment below CPA,1986? Explain.

Ans: The three-tier-machinery underneath CPA, 1986 consist of District Forum, State Commission and the National Commission.

 A customer can file a case in District Forum if the value of items and offerings along with the compensation claimed, does now not exceed Rs 20 lakh, in the State Commission if the price of items and offerings along with the compensation claimed is over Rs 20 lakh however much less than Rs 1 crore, and in the National commission, if the fee of items and offerings along with the compensation claimed is above Rs 1 crore

On receiving the complaint, the District Forum/State Commission/National Commission shall refer the criticism to the celebration towards whom the criticism is filed.

If required, the items or a sample, thereof, shall be despatched for trying out in a laboratory.

The court docket shall ignore an order after thinking about the take a look at file and listening to the birthday party in opposition to whom the grievance is filed.

2. Give the definition of ‘Consumer’ as per CPA, 1986.

Ans: Under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, the time period ‘consumer’ has been described as any individual who buys items or hires or avail any carrier for a consideration which has been paid or promised or partly paid and partly promised or beneath any machine of deferred payment.

It additionally consists of any person of such items with the approval of the customer or any beneficiary of offerings when such items or offerings are availed of with the approval of the character worried however does now not consist of a man or woman who avails such offerings for any industrial purpose.

3.State any eight reliefs accessible to a purchaser below the provision of CPA, 1986.

Ans: The reliefs handy to a customer underneath the CPA, 1986 are:

(i) To eliminate the defects in items or deficiency in services.

(ii) To exchange the faulty product with a new one, free from any defect.

(iii)To refund the charge paid for the product.

(iv) To pay a realistic quantity of compensation for any loss suffered.

(v)To pay punitive damages in fabulous circumstances.

(vi)Not to provide hazardous items for sale.

(vii)To withdraw the hazardous items from sale.

(viii) To quit the manufacture of hazardous goods.

4.Anita purchased a e book from Satish e book stores. While studying the book, she located that ten pages have been missing. She approached the e book vendor and complained about the lacking pages. The vendor promised that if the writer was once equipped to alternate the book, he would trade the same. After one week, the vendor knowledgeable Anita that the writer had refused to trade the book.

Where can Anita file a criticism in opposition to the vendor of the book? Give purpose in help of your answer. Also, provide an explanation for who is a customer as per Consumer Protection Act, 1986. 

Ans. Anita can file a grievance in opposition to the vendor of the e book in the District Forum.

District Forum is set up by way of the State Government in every district.

In District Forum, solely such complaints can be filed in which the price of items or offerings and the compensation claimed is now not extra than Rs 20 lakhs.

Consumer as per CPA, 1986   Under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, the time period ‘consumer’ has been described as any individual who buys items or hires or avail any carrier for a consideration which has been paid or promised or partly paid and partly promised or below any device of deferred payment.

 It additionally consists of any consumer of such items with the approval of the purchaser or any beneficiary of offerings when such items or offerings are availed of with the approval of the individual worried however does now not encompass an individual who avails such offerings for any industrial purpose.

5.Harish bought a medicinal drug from Bhatia Medical Stores for his son, who had excessive fever. Even after giving the medicinal drug his son’s situation did no longer enhance and he had to be hospitalized. Doctor knowledgeable Harish that medicinal drug given to his son was once spurious. Harish complained about this to Bhatia Medical Stores. As-a result, Bhatia Medical Stores determined to file a criticism in opposition to the producer in the client court. Can Bhatia Medical Stores do this? Give motive in help of your answer. Also, provide an explanation for who is a client as per Consumer Protection Act, 1986.

Ans: ‘Bhatia Medical Stores’ can’t file a criticism in opposition to the producer in the customer courtroom due to the fact Bhatia Medical Stores is now not a client in this case. He is now not a consumer however has bought medicinal drug for resale purpose/commercial purpose.

Meaning of Consumer as per Consumer Protection Act, 1986   Anita can file a criticism towards the vendor of the e book in the District Forum. District Forum is mounted by means of the State Government in every district. In District Forum, solely such complaints can be filed in which the price of items or offerings and the compensation claimed is no longer greater than Rs 20 lakhs.

Consumer as per CPA, 1986   Under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, the time period ‘consumer’ has been described as any individual who buys items or hires or avail any carrier for a consideration which has been paid or promised or partly paid and partly promised or beneath any gadget of deferred payment. It additionally consists of any consumer of such items with the approval of the consumer or any beneficiary of offerings when such items or offerings are availed of with the approval of the character worried however does no longer consist of a character who avails such offerings for any industrial purpose.

6. Explain the following as approaches and ability of customer protection

(i)Consumer awareness

(ii)Government

Ans: (i) Consumer focus A nicely knowledgeable client will shield himself from unfair alternate practices. A customer needs to be properly knowledgeable about his rights, obligations and reliefs handy to him. Only then, he would be in a function to elevate his voice in opposition to unfair alternate practices and shield his interests. In addition to this, a perception of his duties would additionally allow a customer to protect his interest.

(ii) Government The authorities can defend the hobby of the buyers by way of enacting a number legislation. CPA is one of them which presents 3-tier device of redressal to the aggrieved consumers. The felony framework in India encompasses a variety of legislations which furnish safety to consumers.