Top 11 Tools to make your research paper effective

Gone are visiting the library, studying various books, and penning down notes on paper for a research paper.

We no longer have to do this tedious routine for a research paper, all thanks to technology.

Research Paper writing today is dynamic.

We often use the World Wide Web to study analytics, watch videos, browse websites, and conduct our research by exploring different kinds of digital content, making technology and the internet a big stakeholder in making our research paper successful.

While the internet has made all the wordily information available with the click of a button, it has given birth to a whole new set of problems.

Browsing through a seemingly enormous number of webpages/ websites, verifying content, and fine listing only the best stuff can take up a lot of effort and time.

This is why we have brought you 11 essential tools to make your research paper effective.


The research paper generally involves browsing through hundreds and thousands of links, articles, and webpages and compiling it in a safe place for future use and reference, or publishing them for your target audience.

This is where curation and bookmarking tools like elink come into the picture. helps researchers save their links safely and quickly under one roof and share it with their team colleagues or peers.

This tool makes it extremely easy for researchers to save voluminous content around the world wide web.

They can easily save social media posts, cloud files, videos, article links, and much more.

Researchers can either add the content directly to the content collections or save the content to their link library or share it with their peers.

Elink also provides a chrome extension to make the bookmarking process a breeze.

You need to tap on the extension or right-click on any website or webpage to save the content to your link dashboard directly.

Researchers are allowed to edit the description and title to add their notes or voice.

They can also bundle links together and embed the collection on their website/ blog or share their link collection with others as a newsletter.

It has an easy to use interface, and its paid plans are as follows-

  • $15 monthly
  •  $12 per month (For 1 Year)
  •  $10 per month (For 2 Years).

2.    Grammarly

Proofreading and spellchecking are two main tasks needed to give a professional touch to your research paper.

A writing enhancement tool that will save a lot of your time and effort doing these tasks for you is Grammarly.

Apart from basic proofreading and spellchecking, Grammarly also-

  • Has a plagiarism checker
  • Includes a vocabulary enhancer
  • Consists of a punctuation checker
  • Checks your grammar

This tool checks your research paper for over 250 kinds of grammar mistakes in six different writing genres and ensures that your content is free of errors.

Therefore, Grammarly is a must-have tool for researchers as it thoroughly explains all your errors and provides you with weekly progress reports.

It is available as a Microsoft add-in, a web-based app, a desktop app, and a browser extension. 

The key feature of this tool is that it works with almost all the online tools like Slack, Word, etc. It also has a tone detector. 


This efficient and awesome tool claims that every researcher should be using it as a smarter alternative to Latex and Word.

It provides an easy to use interface, and you can even import your existing Word files with this product.

Typeset makes the research paper a bit too easy, as you can choose from more than 100,000+ verified journal formats.

You can quickly upload or copy-paste your research paper and use any citation style that you need.

It also ensures that your writing is free of any errors, as it also consists of a plagiarism checker and a grammar checker.

Click on ‘Autoformat’ to generate your report in seconds when you are citing and uploading.

You can download your research paper in various formats such as a Zip file, Latex File, Docx, or a PDF.

You are also allowed to invite your fellow researchers to the platform and work together with the built-in collaboration features.

It also improves your chances of publication by providing various types of editing services.

4.    Scrivener

Another great tool for research paper writing is Scrivener. It helps keep your notes organized and can be used by translators, lawyers, academics, journalists, students, non-fiction writers, novelists, screenwriters, researchers, and Nx many more.

It is a tool that has been built and designed for long writing projects.

When you sign up, you are provided with its editor and a sidebar to keep everything well in place.

You can even break down your content into various manageable sections of different sizes and leave Scrivener to club them together.

If you are a storyteller or a novelist, a corkboard will also be provided to visualize your storyline and move around cards as your requirement.

The outliner has a synopsis of what you have already written along with word count data and metadata.

Users can also arrange their files like research papers in folders and subfolders.

5.    Google Scholar

Fifth on our list is an awesome and amazing research tool ‘Google Scholar’ by Google.

From a single location, you can broadly search for scholarly literature by Google Scholar.

You can look and search for court opinions, abstracts, books, thesis, and articles from academic publishers, universities, online repositories, professional societies, and other web sites.

Researchers can also explore publications, authors, citations, related works easily for their research paper.

You can create a public author profile and view that who’s citing your recent publication.

Google Scholar will also keep you updated with the recent happenings and developments in any research area by looking/ searching for information across the database of Google.

The biggest advantage of using Google Scholar is that it is the only free to use the software on this list. 

6.    Endnote

An endnote is a tool that simplifies the tiresome work of searching for references, finding full texts, and formatting bibliographies, i.e., it makes your research work smarter.

This tool allows you to track activity and changes, manage team access, and share selected groups of references from one dashboard, thus being collaborative.

Endnote automatically finds your references’ impact and searches for your research papers’ best-fit journal with smarter insights.

This portal also allows its users to update, format, and create bibliographies.

You can start working instantly by quickly exporting your full-text PDFs and references into Endnote.

Researchers can also enhance their endnote experience by getting the most of this portal with many endnote plug-ins and templates.

This tool’s key features include automatic reference and link updating, tracking your teammates’ activity on your shared library, and importing filters on prior research. 

7.    Evernote

A note-taking application tool that can prove useful while writing a research paper is Evernote.

This app helps one to store all his/her notes, to-do lists, research links, and ideas in one place.

You can also create separate folders and tags for the different types of data you are saving and keep it all organized.

It also auto-syncs across all your devices, including tablets, smartphones, and desktop.

This can be useful as you can switch between different devices without losing your information.

It also has a Chrome Browser extension, which is called the Evernote web clipper.

It is a great add-on, allowing you to save content such as articles over the world wide web while doing your research.

You need to click the browser extension to highlights your Evernote notebook or save the entire page along with any notes that you may have about that page.

8.    Mendeley

 Mendeley is reference management software that allows researchers to create bibliographies, citations, and references in multiple journal styles and that too with just a few clicks. You can quickly access your library from anywhere.

It works on different operating systems such as Linux, Mac, Windows, etc.

You can import any document from your desktop to your library or add research papers directly from your browser with just a few clicks.

Researchers can connect and network with more than six million users with Mendeley’s research network.

Users can create groups to follow curated bibliographies, discover research, carry out discussions.

There are more than 250000+ health, technology, and science jobs to advance your career and grant data from more than five thousand companies to fund your next research paper.

You can even annotate and organize documents with Mendeley. 

9.    Contentmine

Contentmine offers various text mining services to help researchers extract, analyze, download, find knowledge from academic and research papers.

It also reduces the time taken to conduct a meta-analysis by extracting data from graphs and tables.

Contentment designs its open-source code to help out researchers search papers and not waste any time on the world wide web.

They can also convert PDFs and academic papers to HTML or almost any format.

The portal also offers training workshops and consultancy to educate people on the work they do and how. It can also quickly my texts from hundreds and thousands of papers.

You need to contact their sales department for pricing details.

10. Researchgate

The tenth tool on our list to make your research paper effective is a platform known as Researchgate.

It gives you access to more than one hundred and thirty-five million publication pages. This helps you to stay up to date with what’s happening in your field.

Researchers can also discover new bibliographies and papers, collaborate with peers, and share their research via a built-in community. 

It also keeps tracks of your citations and provides deep analytics on who’s been reading your research paper.

Researchgate is a research community that you should join as it currently hails more than 17 million users.

Citation tracking, analytics to view who’s reading your research paper, share and find researchers are some of Researchgate’s key features. This software is free to use.


Research paper means going through numerous infographics, videos, images, blogs, articles, websites, and more to find what you are looking for.

Therefore, one needs a tool that incorporates all facets of modern-day research under one roof.

The bit comes into the picture as simple text editors just won’t cut it anymore.

This tool allows management, track, share, and collaborative research and knowledge in one place.

It is an awesome research paper tool to share multi-dimensional research with your colleagues and not just boring, plain slides and texts.

You can easily add audio samples, eBooks, white papers, videos, PDFs, articles and share it with your peers.

This minimal editor is easy to use that supports Markdown.

It is collaborative and supports real-time editing and communication with peers.

You can also add any digital content, i.e., videos, images, etc. to your document.

It also provides you access to a content library that saves all your media files for quick access.

It also has a feature of Smart Search, which can be used to search and find any links, documents, images, files, etc. quickly.

Thus, it is a must-have writing tool for researchers as it makes your research paper effective.


There you have it, folks, our list of 11 amazing tools that will make your research paper effective.

A research paper is hard work- from the initial stages of finding and managing content to publishing and organizing research paper takes a lot of effort and time.

However, researchers will surely get the most of their effort and time and get work done more effectively and efficiently with our awesome list of tools.

Any questions or concerns regarding/about ‘Top 11 Tools to make your research paper effective’ are welcome in the comments section.

Vector and Matrix Operations in Scilab

Matrix Operations in Scilab is very easy before starting matrix operations let’s first discuss vectors.

You can easily perform add, subtraction, multiplication, calculation of eigen value and Eigen vectors, finding the inverse of the matrix, calculating linear equations and many more operations are easy with Scilab.

Vector in Scilab

We can create vector in scilab as below. Elements can be separated by , or space

Finding length of vector   

To find the length of vector length () method is used and name of the vector is passed as argument.

Transpose of a vector

To find the transpose of a vector use ‘  with vector.

Adding a number in vector

To add a scalar number in vector simple addition is done and addition is done with each element of vector.

Subtracting a number in vector

Subtracting scalar number from each element following statement is used.

Addition of two vectors

To add to vector store each one in a variable and perform add operation as below.

Subtraction of two vectors

It is also similar to variable subtraction

Matrix in Scilab

Matrix is a rectangular arrangement of elements.

Creating matrix in scilab

 Accessing elements in Matrix Scilab

Scilab uses 1 based indexing to access elements.

To access all elements of a row : is used

a(:,: ) has the same meaning as a

here first : represents column and second : represents row,

To find second and third row of each column a (:,2:3)

Accessing the last element of matrix

a($)  this will last element of matrix

Finding last element of first column

Finding last element of each column

Adding a new row to matrix

Lets add a new row in matrix.

Finding size of matrix in Scilab

To find the size of matrix the size() is used.

with size to gets row and columns

it can be used like


here row and columns are stored in row and column variable

Finding square and cube of matrix

To find square and qube of matrix we have to use power operator

To find the power a square matrix is needed.

Addition and subtraction of matrix

Addition and subtraction of matrix is similar to add or subtract variables.

Multiplication of matrix in Scilab

For multiplication of matrix number of row of first matrix should match with number of columns of second matrix.

Calculating the determinant of matrix

Lets consider a matrix to find its determinant.

To find the determinant use det()

Inverse of matrix

To find the inverse of matrix inv() is used.

Eigen values of square matrix

To find the eigen value of matrix spec() is used.

Functions related to matrix creation

To create different matrix following functions are used.

Creating zero matrix of 4×4

Creating ones matrix of 4×4

Creating identity matrix if 3×3

Creating random matrix of 3×4

Solving linear equation using matrices

Lets see how to solve linear equation in scilab.

  1. Get the equation.
  2. Represent data in matrix form
  3. Calculate inv(a)*b
  4. Result will be solution for linear equation

Read More

  1. Scilab Basics


  1. Matrix operations

छत्तीसगढ़ प्राकृतिक प्रदेश

प्राकृतिक विभाजन प्रतिशत् क्षेत्रफल
1) छत्तीसगढ़ का मैदान/ 50.34ः 68064 वर्ग कि.मी.
महानदी बेसिन
2) दण्डकारण्य का पठार 28.91ः 39060 वर्ग कि.मी.
3) पूर्वी बघेल का पठार 16.16ः 21863 वर्ग कि.मी
4) जशपुर सामरी पाट 4.59ः 6205 वर्ग कि.मी.

छत्तीसगढ़ का मैैदान

  • इसके भौतिक उपविभाग पेण्ड्रा, लोरमी का पठार, व छुरी उदयपुर की पहाड़ियों छ.ग. के मैदान प्राकृतिक प्रदेश को पूर्वी बघेलखण्ड के पठार को पृथक करते है।
  • इसके अंतर्गत राजनांदगांव, मोहला, तहसील के दक्षिणी हिस्से को छोड़कर कवर्धा, दुर्ग, रायपुर, धमतरी, महांसमुद, बिलासपुर, कोरबा, जांजगीर-चाॅपा, तथा रायगढ़ जिले में सम्मिलित है।

छत्तीसगढ़ का मैैदान

  • क्षेत्रफल – 68064 वर्ग कि.मी.
  • क्षेत्रफल -ः(प्रतिशत्) में – 50.34ः
  • ढाल – पूर्व की ओर
  • शैल समूह – कड़प्पा शैल समूह
  • खनिज – चूना पत्थर एवं डोलोमाइट
  • मिट्टी – लाल-पीली, मिट्टी एवं काली मिट्टी
  • बिलासपुर $ मंुगेली $ कोरबा
  • फसल – चाॅवल, चना, कपास
  • बांध – तांदुला, खरखरा, मरूमसिल्ली, खुड़िया, मिनीमाता, रूद्री विकअप वियर आदि।
  • जलवायु – उष्ण कटिबंध मानसूनी
  • सर्वाधिक तापमान – चाॅपा
  • अधिकतम वार्षिक तापमान – रायगढ़
  • सर्वाधिक ठण्डा स्थान – पेण्ड्रा
  • सर्वाधिक धनत्व – जांजगीर-चाॅपा (420 व्यक्ति वर्ग कि.मी.)
  • लद्यु वनोपज – तेदुपत्ता औश्र बांस
  • मुख्य जनजाति गोड़
  • औद्योगिक विकास व रेत परिवहन यहाँ उच्च है।
  • आकृति – पंखानुमा
  • वन – मिश्रित प्रकार की।

महानदी बेसिन

छत्तीसगढ़ का मैदान
(32018 वर्ग कि.मी.)
1) कोरबा बेसिन
2) दुर्ग – रायपुर का मैदान
3) रायगढ़ बेसिन
4) बिलासपुर रायगढ़ का मैदान

सीमान्त उच्च भूमि
(36046 वर्ग कि.मी.)
1) पेण्ड्रा लोरमी का पठार
2) धमतरी महांसमुद उच्च भूमि
3) छुरी उदयपुर की पहाड़ियाँ
4) मैकल श्रेणी
5) दुर्ग उच्च भूमि

छत्तीसगढ़ का मैैदान:-

  • सबसे बड़ा मैदान प्राकृतिक विभाग है।
  • छ.ग. का हृदय स्थल कहा जाता है
  • छत्तीसगढ़ सभ्यता का पालना स्थल

कोरबा बेसिन

विस्तार – दक्षिण कोरबा में

दुर्ग रायपुऱ का मैैदान

विस्तार – राजनांदगांव के पूर्वी भाग, कवर्धा के दक्षिण भाग, दुर्ग, बालोद, बेमेतरा, धमतरी, गरियाबंद में

रायगढ़ बेसिन

विस्तार – धरमजयगढ़, खरसिया, रायगढ़, दक्षिण कटघोरा

बिलासपुर- रायगढ़ का मैैदान

विस्तार – बिलासपुर, जांजगीर-चाॅपा, रायगढ़,
प्रमुख पहाड़ – दहला पहाड़ (750 मीटर)

पेण्ड्रा-लोरमी का पठार

विस्तार – पेण्ड्रा (बिलासपुर), लोरमी-पंडरिया (मंुगेली) कटघोरा
प्रमुख चोटी – 1. पलमा चोटी (1080 मी.)
2. लाफागढ़ (1048 मी.)
3. खोडरी – खोंगसरा पहाड़

सीमान्त उच्च भूमि:-
यह छत्तीसगढ़ के मैदान के चारों ओर फैला हुआ है।

  1. पश्चिमी सीमान्त उच्च भूमि कवर्धा, राजनांदगांव में विस्तृत है। मैकल पर्वत श्रेणी का हिस्सा है।
    सबसे ऊँची चोटी बदरगढ़ (ऊचाई 1176 मी. है। यह सतपुड़ा पर्वत का भाग है।
  2. पूर्वी सीमान्त उच्च भूमि
    विस्तार:- गरियाबंद, महांसमुद, रायगढ़
    पर्वत – शिशिुपाल पर्वत
    सबसें ऊँची चोटी – धारीडोंगर (ऊँचाई 899 मी.)
    इसे धमतरी महांसमुद उच्च भूमि के नाम से भी जाना जाता है।
    इसके अंतर्गत महांसमुद में खदान की पहाड़ियों शिशुपाल श्रेणी में नारियल पानी तथा धमतरी जिले में सिहावा नगरी की पहाड़ियांे स्थित है।
    उदगम्:- महानदी, लात, जोक नदी
  3. अभ्यारण:- गोमडी, उदयंती, सीतानदी
    जनजाति निवास:- कमार
    पश्चिमी सीमान्त उच्च भूमि:-
    म.प्र. तथा छ.ग. के मध्य प्राकृतिक सीमा का निर्धारण करता है
    मैकल पर्वत श्रेणी में कांदावानी की पहाड़ी (कबीरधामा) तथा राजनांदगांव में चांदीडोगर, चिंतवाडोगर तथा पानाबरस की पहाड़ियों स्थित है।
    अन्य चोटियों में झाला-पहाड़ (1136) देवसानी, लिलवानी व ब्राम्हृणी प्रमुख है
    मैकल पर्वत उच्च किस्म के सागौन के लिए प्रसिद्ध है।
    अभ्यारण – भोरमदेव, अचानकमार, (बायोस्फीयर रिजर्व)
    सतपुड़ा मैकल श्रेणी के बैंगा जनजाति का घर कहा जाता है।
    अगरिया जनजाति व्यारा इसी प्रदेश में लोहे की खोज की जाती है।
    चांदीडोगर- फ्लूटराइट के लिए प्रसिद्ध है
    मैकल पर्वत श्रेणी नर्मदा प्रवाह तंत्र को महानदी प्रवाह तंत्र में अलग करती है।
  4. द्ध छुरी उदयपुर की पहाड़ियों:-
    विस्तार- कोरबा व रायगढ़ में स्थित है।
    इस पहाड़ी के मतिरिंगा नामक क्षेत्र से रिंहद नदी का उदगम् हुआ है।

दुर्ग सीमान्त उच्च भूमि:-
विस्तार:- डोण्डोलोहारा (बालोद) अम्बागढ़ चैकी (राजनांदगांव दुर्ग)
ऊँची चोटी:- दल्लीराजहरा (700 मी.) डोंगरगढ़ (704 मी.)
बद्धधमतरी महांसमुद उच्च भूमि:-
विस्तार:- धमतरी, महांसमुद $ गरियाबंद
विशेष – पूर्व की सबसें ऊँची चोटी धारीडोगर (ऊँचाई – 899 मी.) है।
कद्धमैकल पर्वत श्रेणी:- (आकृति अर्धचंदाकर)
ऽ सिहावा पर्वत मैकल का हिस्सा है।
ऽ विस्तार:- कवर्धा, मंुगेली, राजनांदगांव, बिलासपुर,
ऽ यह शिवनाथ व वेनगंगा के मध्य जल विभाजक का कार्य करती है
ऽ यह प्रदेश पश्चिम में जलवायु विभाजक का कार्य करती है। जोे दक्षिण पश्चिम मानसून की अरब सागर शाखा में आने वाली पवनों को अवरूहद कर वृद्धि कवर्धा में छाया प्रदेश का निर्माण

  1. दण्डकारण्य का पठार या इन्द्रावती बेसिन:-
    प्रदेश के दक्षिण में स्थित प्राकृतिक प्रदेश जो धारवाल युगीन शैल समूह ग्रंेनाइट व नीस से समृद्ध है। इसलिए इसे खनिजों की भूमि कहा जाता है। यह प्राकृतिक क्षेत्र गोदावरी नदी अपवाह तंत्र का हिस्सा है।
    क्षेत्रफल:- 39,060 वर्ग कि.मी.
    क्षेत्रफल:- प्रतिशत् में 28.91 प्रतिशत्
    ढाल:- पश्चिमी फिर दक्षिण की ओर
    शैल समूह – धारावाढ़ शैल समूह
    खनिज – लौह अयस्क, कोरण्डम्, टीन, मायका आदि।
    मिट्टी – लाल रेतीली मिट्टी
    फसल – मोटे अनाज, कोदों कुटकी आदि।

दण्डकारण्य का पठार

नदी – इन्द्रावती, कोटरी, शबरी
ऊॅंची चोटी – नन्दीराज (बैलाडीला, 1210 मी.)
वन – साल, सागौन, अधिकांश वन मिश्रित है।

  • बस्तर में साल वनों की अधिकता के कारण बस्तर को साल वनों का द्वीप कहा जाता है।
     जनजाति – मुरिया, माडिया
     सर्वाधिक वर्षा वाला स्थल – अबूझमाड की पहाड़ी (187 से.मी.)
     मिट्टी – लाल रेतीली व बलुई मिट्टी
     जलवायु – उष्ण आर्द्र मानसूनी जलवायु
     विशेष – दूसरा बड़ा भौगोलिक क्षेत्र
  • आघ महाकल्प युग की ग्रेनाइट तथा नीस का एक विस्तृत प्रदेश
    -बीन्ता घाटी – ‘बस्तर का कश्मीर‘ कहलाता है
  • बैलाडीला की पहाड़ियाॅं जिसे आकाश द्वीप भी कहते हैं, बैलाडीला सर्वश्रेष्ठ लौह अयस्क के लिए प्रसिध्द हैं।
  • नारायणपुर, बीजापुर व सुकमा मे उच्च साल वृक्ष तथा द्वितीय श्रेणी का सागौन मिलता है।
  • जैव विविधता के क्षेत्र मे संपन्न क्षेत्र।
  • केशकाल – बस्तर का प्रवेश द्वार।
     यह दण्डकारण्य का पठार राजनांदगांव जिले के मोहला तहसील भाग तक विस्तृत है।
  1. केशकाल कगार – “बस्तर का प्रवेश द्वार“
     स्थानीय नाम – तेलीन घाटी
     विस्तार – कोण्डगांव
     मोडदार मार्ग – 12
     विशेष – यह महानदी व इन्द्रावती नदी के मध्य जलद्विभाजक का कार्य करती है।
  2. कोटरी बेसिन – “कांकेर बेसित“
     विस्तार – पखांजुर, भानुप्रतापपुर और मोहला तहसील में हैं।
     इन्द्रावती की सबसे बड़ी सहायक नदी है (कोटरी)
     कोटरी नदी नारायणपुर व महाराष्ट्र की सीमा बनाती है।
  3. बस्तर का पठार –
     विस्तार – कांकेर, कोण्डागांव, केशकाल, जगदलपुर, दंतेवाड़ा,
    अंतागढ़, बीजापुर.
     प्रमुख घाटी – दरभा घाटी (बस्तर)। झीरम घाटी (सुकमा) कांगेर घाटी (जगदलपुर)
  4. बस्तर या इन्द्रावती का मैदान –
     विस्तार – बीजापुर और सुकमा का दक्षिण पश्चिम हिस्सा
    निर्माण – इन्द्रावती नदी द्वारा
     इन्द्रावती नदी को बस्तर की जीवन रेखा कहा जाता है।
  5. अबूझमाड़ की पहाड़ी –
     विस्तार – नारायणपुर, बीजापुर, दंतेवाड़ा
     अवस्थिति – पठार के दक्षिण-पश्चिम हिस्से में
     घाटी – यहां स्थित कुरसेल घाटी से सर्वोच्च किस्म के सागौन वनों की प्राप्ति होती है।
  6. रावघाट की पहाड़ी –
     विस्तार – कांकेर, नारायणपुर
     अवस्थिति – दक्षिण पश्चिम में
     लौह अयस्क परिवहन हेतु इसे रेल मार्ग से जोड़ा जा रहा है।
  7. बैलडिला की पहाड़ी –
     विस्तार – दंतेवाड़ा, बीजापुर, सुकमा
     ऊॅंची चोटी – नंदीराज, दंतेवाड़ा (1210 मी.)
     प्रमुख शाखा – बरहा डोंगरी (बीजापुर, दंतेवाड़ा)
     लौह अयस्क – किरंदुल (1968), बैलाडीला (1988), बचेली
     विशेष – सर्वोत्तम लौह अयस्क की प्राप्ति। बैलाडिला खान से लौह अयस्क विशाखपट्टनम बंदरगाह के माध्यम से जापान को
    आपूर्ति की जाती है। यह बस्तर क्षेत्र का सबसे बड़ा पहाड़ है जहां धारवाड शैल का विस्तार मिलता है।

3.पूर्वी बघेलखण्ड का पठार –

क्षेत्रफल – 21863 वर्ग कि.मी.
क्षेत्रफल प्रतिशत – 16.16 प्रतिशत
ढ़ाल – उत्तर की ओर
शैल समूह – गोण्डवाना शैल समूह
खनिज – कोयला
मिट्टी – लाल पीली व लेटेराइट मिट्टी
फसल – चावल चना
नदी – हसदेव, बनास, गोपद, रिहन्द, कन्हार
ऊॅंची चोटी – देवगढ़ की चोटी (1033 मी.)
वन -सागौन
जलवायु – उष्ण आर्द्र मानसूनी
विशेष – बघेलखण्ड का पठार के पूर्वी भाग का विस्तार छत्तीसगढ़ में है। जिसे पूर्वी बघेलखण्ड का पठार कहा जाता है।
यह पठार महानदी एवं मंगा का जल विभाजक क्षेत्र है।
पठार में उच्चावच्च अधिक है।
पूर्वी बघेलखण्ड के पठार का कुल 47.32 प्रतिशत छ.ग. में आता है।
इस पठार के 3 सतह है –

  1. पूर्वी सरगुजा बेसिन की सतह (550 मीटर)
  2. सोनहत का पठार (755 मीटर)
  3. देवगढ़ की पहाड़ी (1033 मीटर)

पूर्वी बघेलखण्ड पठार के निम्नलिखित उपविभाग है –

  1. कन्हार बेसिन – (ब्ण्ळण्सहित न्च़्डच् में भी विस्तार)
    विस्तार- बलरामपुर (तहसील – रामानुजगंज)
  • बघेलखण्ड का सबसे पूर्व भाग
  • छत्तीसगढ़ के सबसे उत्तर में तथा बलरामपुर के उत्तर रामानुजगंज में
     कन्हार नदी द्वारा निर्मित इस बेसिन का विस्तार छत्तीसगढ़ सहित झारखण्ड व उत्तरप्रदेश में भी है।
  1. रिहन्द बेसिन –
     विस्तार – बलरामपुर (वाड्रफनगर तहसील में)
     सिंगरौली बेसिन भी कहते है।
     रिहन्द नदी दक्षिण में स्थित छुरी मतिरिंगा नाम की पहाड़ी से निकलती है।
     यह देवगढ़ की पहाड़ियों के ठीक उत्तर में तथा कन्हार बेसिन के पश्चिम में फैला है।
  2. देवगढ़ की पहाड़ी –
     विस्तार – कोरिया, सुरजपुर, बलरामपुर
     महानदी की सहायक हसदों नदी देवगढ़ की पहाड़ियों निकलती है।
     ऊॅंची चोटी – देवगढ़ (1033 मीटर)
     देवगढ़ की पहाड़ी के उत्तर में गोपद तथा रिहन्द जलविभाजक सीमा पर देवसर पहाड़ी प्रदेश स्थित है।
  3. सरगुजा बेसिन –
     यह देवगढ़ तथा मैनपाट तथा छुरी उदयपुर की पहाड़ियों से घिरा हैं।
     नदी – रिहन्द नदी
     विशेष – रामगढ़ की पहाड़ी, जहां सबसे बड़ा नाट्यशाला (सीताबेंगरा गुफा) है, इसी नदी बेसिन का भाग है।
     रामगढ़ की पहाड़ी –
     अवस्थिति- सीतापुर, सरगुजा
     भौतिक विशिष्टता- यह पहाड़ी सरगुजा बेसिन के अंर्तगत रिहंद नदी के प्रवाह क्षेत्र में स्थित है। नदियों के अपरदन के कारण
    विभिन्न गुफाओं में कदाराओं का निर्माण हुआ है।
     जोगी मारा गुफा – यहाॅं से 2-3 शताब्दी ई. पू. मौर्यकालीन सम्राट अशोक के लेख प्राप्त हुए है। इस अभिलेख के अनुसार प्राचीन
    काल में नाट्य परंपरा से जुड़े नर्तक अपनी कला का प्रदर्शन करने थे। इस गुफा में परंपरा की नृत्यांगना सुतनुका एवं बनारस
    निवासी देवदत्त नामक नर्तक प्रेम संबंधों का पर्णन मिलता है।
     सीताबेंगरा गुफा – यह विश्व की प्राचीनतम नाट्यशाला मानी गयी है। इस गुफा के भीतरी भाग में मंच व दर्शन दीर्घ के लिए
    चट्टानों को काटकर नाट्यशाला बनायी गयी थी।
     लक्ष्मण गुफा- यह भगवान लक्ष्मण को समर्पित गुफा है। जिसके प्रवेश द्वार को मानक मुखाकृति के समान बताया गया है।
     सीताकुण्ड- रामायण काल में भगवान श्री राम ने प्रवास के दौरान यहां जलसंग्रहण कुण्ड बनवाया जो वर्तमान में सीताकुण्ड के
    नाम से प्रसिध्द है।
     विशेष – भारत के प्रसिध्द कवि कालिदास ने अपनी प्रसिध्द रचना मेघदूतम् में रामगढ़ की पहाड़ी का वर्णन किया है।
  4. सोनहत – कोरिया की पहाड़ी –
     विस्तार – कोािरया, सूरजपुर
     यहां से बनास नदी का उद्गम हुआ है।
  5. हसदो – रामपुर क्षेत्र –
     विस्तार – दक्षिणी कोरिया जिला
     इसके दक्षिण पूर्व में पेण्ड्रालोरमी का पठार, दक्षिण-पश्चिम में कोरबा बेसिन, दक्षिण-पूर्व में छुरी-उदयपुर की पहाड़ियाॅं, उत्तर पूर्व में सरगुजा बेसिन तथा उत्तर में देवगढ़ की पहाड़ियाॅं है।
  6. जशपुर सामरी पाट –
    चित्र: जशपुर सामरी पाट
     पाट का अर्थ – शिखर वाले पठार
     क्षेत्रफल – 6205 वर्ग ाण्उण्
     क्षेत्रफल प्रतिशत – 4.59 प्रतिशत
     निर्माण – प्राचीन शैलों से
     शैल समूह -ढक्कन टैªप
     खनिज – बाक्साइट
     मिट्टी – लाल पीली, लेटेराइट व कछारी
     फसल – चावल, मक्का, गेहॅंु
     नदी – मांड, ईब
     ऊॅंची चोटी – गौरलाटा (1225 मीटर)
     वर्षा – जशपुर में सर्वाधिक
     जलवायु – उष्ण कटिबंधीय मानसूनी
     जनजाति – उरांव, पण्डों, भंुजिया
    नोट- सबसे उत्तर का पाट क्षेत्र – सामरी
    सबसे पूर्व का पाट क्षेत्र – जमीरपाट
    सबसे दक्षिण का पाट क्षेत्र – जशपुर
    सबसे पश्चिम का पाट क्षेत्र – मैनपाट

 प्रदेश में पाट प्रदेश की उत्तर से दक्षिण लम्बाई 150 कि.मी. एंव से पश्चिम चैड़ाई 85 कि.मी. है।

  1. मैनपाट – छ.ग. का शिमला
     अवस्थिति – सरगुजा
     विस्तार – अंबिकापुर, सीतापुर तहसील, सरगुजा
     विशेष – टाइगर प्वांइट, मेहता प्वांइट, मछली प्वांइट, इको प्वांइट, मांड नदी का उद्गम, सरभंजा जलप्रपात
  • 1962 में तिब्बियों को बसाया गया।
  • एकमात्र भू-कम्पित जलजली क्षेत्र यहां स्थित है।
  • पावेलियन प्रजाति का कुत्ता
  • छोटा तिब्बत की उपमा, सबसे ठण्डा स्थान
  1. जारंग पाट – विस्तार – बलरामपुर, सरगुजा
     यह राज्य का सबसे बड़ा बाक्साइट का भंडारण क्षेत्र माना गया है।
  2. जमीर पाट – विस्तार -बलरामपुर
    इसे बाक्साइट का मैदान कहा जाता है।
  3. पण्डारापाट – विस्तार – जशपुर
    यहां से ईब व कन्हार नदी निकलती है।
  4. जशपुर पाट – (निम्न घाट)
     विस्तार – जशपुर
     अन्य नाम – ईब – मैनी घाटी
     विशेष – यह राज्य का सबसे बड़ा व लम्बा पाट है।
     इसके उत्तरी क्षेत्र में पण्डरापाट स्थित है।
  5. सामरी पाट –
     छ.ग. की सर्वोच्च चोटी गोरेलाटा (1225 मीटर)
     दक्षिणी बलरामपुर में सामरी पाट का विस्तार
     छ.ग. का सबसे ऊॅंचा पाट
     कन्हार नदी सामरी पाट को दो भागों में विभाजित करता है-
  6. पूर्व को जमीरपाट
  7. पश्चिम को लहसुन पाट

क्र. पहाड़ियाॅं ऊॅंचाईयाॅं क्षेत्र

  1. गौरलाटा 1225मी. सामरीपाट(बलरामपुर)
  2. नन्दीराज 1210मी. बैलाडीला(दन्तेवाड़ा)
  3. बदरगढ़ 1176मी. मैकाल श्रेणी
  4. मैनपाट 1152मी. सरगुजा
  5. अबूझमाड़ की 1076मी. नारायणपुर
  6. पलमा की चोटी 1080मी. मैकाल श्रेणी
  7. लाफा पहाड़ी 1048मी. कोरबा
  8. जारंग पाट 1045मी. बलरामपुर, सरगुजा
  9. देवगढ़ की पहाड़ी 1033मी. कोरिया
  10. धारी डोंगर 899मी. महासमंुद
  11. पेण्ड्रा लोरमी 800मी. बिलासपुर
  12. दलहा पहाड़ 760मी. अकलतरा (जंजागीर-चांपा)
  13. डोंगरगढ़ की पहाड़ी 704मी. डोंगरगढ़
  14. दल्लीराजहरा 700मी. बालोद
  15. छुरी मतिरिंगा उदयपुर की पहाड़ियाॅं कोरबा, जशपुर, रायगढ़
  16. जशपुर पाट जशपुर
  17. रामगढ़ की पहाड़ियाॅं सरगुजा
  18. कैमूर पहाड़ कोरिया
  19. सोनहत की पहाड़ी कोरिया
  20. सिहावा पर्वत धमतरी
  21. आरीडोंगरी भानुप्रतापपुर (कांकेर)
  22. गड़िया पहाड़ी कांकेर
  23. कुलझारी पहाड़ी राजनांदगांव
  24. भातृनवागढ़ नारियर पानी गरियाबंद
  25. रदन की पहाड़ी महासमंुद
  26. कोड्डापल्ली, मड्डापल्ली, अलबारवा बीजापुर
  27. छातापहाड़ बलौदाबाजार

बेसिन का मैदान –

  1. रायपुर – दुर्ग का मैदान – रायपुर, दुर्ग संभाग
  2. बिलासपुर – रायगढ़ का मैदान – बिलासपुर ़जांजगीर-चांपा़रायगढ़
  3. बस्तर या इन्द्रावती का मैदान – बीजापुऱसुकमा
  4. धमतरी – महासमंुद उच्च भूमि – धमतरी़गरियाबंद़महासमंुद
  5. कोटरी बेसिन – उत्तरी नारायणपुऱदक्षिण-पश्चिम कांकेर
  6. रायगढ़ बेसिन – रायगढ़ जिला
  7. कोरबा बेसिन – कोरबा जिला
  8. सरगुजा बेसिन – अम्बिकापुर (सीतापुर)
  9. हसदेव रामपुर का बेसिन – दक्षिणी कोरिया़उत्तरी कोरबा
  10. कन्हार का मैदान और बेसिन – उत्तरी बलरामपुर
  11. रिहन्द नदी का मैदान व बेसिन – उत्तरी नारायणपुर दक्षिण पश्चिम कांकेर

छत्तीसगढ़ राज्य की अवस्थिति

  1. उत्तर में स्थित राज्य – उत्तरप्रदेश
    उत्तर में स्थित जिला – बलरामपुर
  2. दक्षिण में स्थित राज्य – आंध्रप्रदेश ,तलंगाना
    दक्षिण में स्थित जिला – सुकमा , बीजापुर
  3. पूर्व में स्थित राज्य – उडिसा
  4. पश्चिम में स्थित राज्य – म.प्र. महाराष्ट्
  5. छ.ग. की सबसे लम्बी सीमा को छूने वाला राज्य – उड़ीसा
  6. राज्य की सबसे कम सीमा को छूने वाला राज्य – आंध्रप्रदेश
  7. छ.ग.से लगा हुआ सबसे बड़ा राज्य (क्षेत्रफल मे) -मध्यप्रदेश
  8. छ.ग. से लगा हुआ सबसे छोटा राज्य (क्षेत्रफल में) -झारखण्ड
  9. छ.ग. का सबसे अधिक अतंराज्यीय सीमा वाला जिला – बलरामपुर
  10. छ.ग. का सबसे कम अंतराज्यीय सीमा वाला जिला – धमतरी
  11. छ.ग. के 13 जिलो को पूर्णरूप से अनुसूचित क्षेत्र में शामिल किया गया है
  12. बस्तर संभाग के 07 जिले सरगुजा संभाग के 05 जिले गरियाबंद अनुसूचित क्षेत्र में शामिल है ।
  13. बलरामपुर व सुकमा वह जिला है जो 3 राज्यो को स्पर्श करती है।
  14. छ.ग. न तो समुद्र ओर नही किसी अंतर्राष्टिय देश को स्पर्श करती है।

1.पश्चिमि जिला बीजापुर
2.उत्तरी जिला – बलरामपुर
3.पूर्वी जिला – जशपुर
4.दक्षिणि जिला- सुकमा

भारतीय मानक समय रेखा

82.1/2 डिग्री पूर्वी देशांतर रेखा जिसमें संपूर्ण भारत के मानक समय का निर्धारण होता है ,छ.ग. से होकर गुजरती है,
प्डज् रेखा पर स्थित कुल तहसील – 15
प्डज् रेखा पर स्थित कुल जिले – 07
कर्क रेखा – 23.1/2 डिग्री उत्तरी अक्षांश रेखा जो भारत में कुल 08 राज्यो से होकर गुजरती है। यह वृद्ध आक्षांशीय रेखा भारत के जलवायु निर्धारण की प्रधान रेखा मानी गयी है ।
 कर्क रेखा में स्थित तहसील – 07
 कर्क रेखा में स्थित जिले – 03
 कर्क रेखा में स्थित जिलो के नाम – कोरिया, सूरजपुर, बलरामपुर,
 कर्क रेखा का सर्वाधिक विस्तार -बलरामपुर
 कर्क रेखा के उत्तर में स्थित तहसील – रामानुजगंज
 कर्क रेखा से सर्वाधिक प्रभावित क्षेत्र – बैकुण्ठपुर (कोरिया)
 राज्य गठन के समय जिलो कि संख्या -16
 सर्वाधिक राज्यों के साथ लगा हुआ जिला – बलरामपुर (3), सुकमा(3)
 म.प्र.के साथ सबसे लम्बी सीमा बनाने वाला जिला – कोरिया
 म.प्र के साथ सबसे कम सीमा बनाने वाला जिला- बलरामपुर
 उड़ीसा के साथ सबसे लम्बी सीमा बनाने वाला जिला-गरियाबंद
 उड़ीसा के साथ सबसे कम सीमा बनाने वाला जिला-धमतरी
 महाराष्ट्र के साथ सबसे लम्बी सीमा बनाने वाला जिला- राजनांदगाँव
 महाराष्ट्र के साथ सबसे कम सीमा बनाने वाला जिला- नारायणपुर
 सर्वाधिक जिलों से संलग्न जिला- बलौदाबाजार(07 जिला)
06 जिला- रायपुर, बेमेतरा, धमतरी, कोरबा, रायगढ़
05 जिला- सरगुजा, बिलासपुर, दुर्ग, कांकेर, राजनांदगाॅव, बीजापुर, कोंडागाँव
 कर्क रेखा और प्ैज् एक दूसरे को काटते है- कोरिया
 सबसे बड़ा जिला- राजनांदगाँव
 दूसरा सबसे बड़ा जिला- कोरबा
 सबसे छोटा जिला-दुर्ग
 दूसरा सबसे छोटा जिला- मुगेली
 छ.ग. राज्य भारत के प्रायद्वीपीय पठार का हिस्सा है।

Business Studies Class 12 Notes Business Environment

1. Meaning of Business Environment

The phrase ‘business environment’ shows the combination whole of all people, businesses and different forces that are backyard the strength of enterprise however that may additionally have an effect on its production.

According to nameless writer- “Just like the universe, withhold from it the subset that describes the gadget and the relaxation is environment”.

Therefore, the financial, cultural, governmental, technological and extraordinary forces which work outdoor an employer are phase of its environment.

The person clients or dealing with companies as properly as the management, client groups, opponents, media, courts and different businesses working outdoor an organization incorporate its environment.

2. Importance of Business Environment

Just like us, commercial enterprise operations do now not live to tell the tale in confinement.

Every organization is no longer an island to itself; it subsists, endures and develops inside the occasions of the section and forces of its situation.

While a person organization is capable to do minute to alternate or manipulate these forces, it has no preference to reacting or editing in accordance to them.

Good expertise of the surroundings by using enterprise managers permits them no longer solely to comprehend and determine however additionally to reply to the forces outdoor to their enterprises.

The value of the enterprise surroundings and its appreciation by using managers can be understood if we ponder the below-mentioned following points:

Importance of business environment

2.1 Helps in Making First Mover Advantage and identifying opportunities

The surroundings offers severa opportunities and it is imperative to discover the possibilities to enhance the overall performance of a business.

Early identification offers a probability to an organisation be the first to perceive probability alternatively of dropping them to competitors.

Example: ‘jio’ recognized the want for quickly net and took first-mover gain by means of imparting 4G pace to its customers observed via Vodafone and Idea.

Asian paints misplaced market share to Asian paints  due to the fact it failed to suit its technology.

2.2 It Helps the organization in finding warning signals and threats

The enterprise surroundings helps in appreciation the threats which are in all likelihood to show up in the future.

Environmental recognition can assist managers pick out a number of threats on time and serve as an early warning signal.

Example: Patanjali merchandise have emerge as a warning signal to the relaxation of the FMCG

The area to boost comparable products.

Similarly, if an Indian association finds that overseas multinational is coming into the Indian market with new substitutes; it wants to put together accordingly.

Chinese cell telephones have end up a chance for Indian cellular smartphone manufacturers.

2.3 It Helps in Tapping Useful Resources

Business and enterprise avail the assets (inputs) from the surroundings and convert them into usable merchandise (outputs) and furnish to society.

The surroundings presents quite a number inputs (resources) the like finance, machines, uncooked materials, electricity and water, labour, etc.

The enterprise business enterprise gives outputs such as items and offerings to the customers, price of taxes to the government, to traders and so on.

Example: With the demand for the today’s technology, producers will faucet the assets from the surroundings to manufacture LED TVs and Smart TVs instead than amassing sources for shade or Black & White TVs.

2.4 It Helps in Coping with Rapid Changes

The commercial enterprise surroundings is altering very rapidly, and the enterprise is getting affected by using altering market conditions.

Turbulent market environment, much less manufacturer loyalty, divisions of markets, modifications in fashions, greater disturbing customers, and international opposition are some examples of altering the enterprise environment.

Example: Jack Ma commenced Alibaba as he ought to see the plausible of hobby in E-Commerce.

2.5  It Helps in Assisting in Planning and Policy Formulation

The enterprise surroundings brings each threats and possibilities to a business.

Awareness of commercial enterprise surroundings helps in figuring out future planning or selection making.

Example: Multiple entries of Chinese telephones like VIVO, Gionee, OPPO, etc. have posed a risk to nearby gamers like Micromax, Karbonn, Lava etc. to assume afresh how to deal with the situation.

2.6 It Helps in Improving Performance

Environmental research divulges that the success of any employer is carefully sure with the adjustments in the environment.

The corporations which reveal and undertake appropriate commercial enterprise practices now not solely enhance their overall performance however end up leaders in the enterprise also.

Example: Apple has been profitable in preserving its market share due to its applicable grasp of the surroundings and making appropriate improvements in its products.

3. Features of Business Environment

3.1 The totality of External Forces

Business surroundings consist of the whole lot which is backyard the organisation.

If we add all these forces, they will structure a commercial enterprise environment.

Example: When Pepsi and Coca-Cola obtained permission to set up their commercial enterprise in India, it used to be an probability for them and chance for neighborhood producers like gold spot, camp-cola etc.

3.2 Specific and General Forces

Specific forces are these forces which immediately have an effect on the operational things to do of the enterprise enterprise.

Example: Suppliers, Customers, Investors, Competitors, Financers etc.

General forces are these forces which circuitously have an effect on the functioning of enterprise enterprises.

Example: Economic, Social, Political, Legal and Technological conditions.

3.3 Inter-relatedness

Different forces of commercial enterprise surroundings are interrelated to every other.

One factor of the enterprise surroundings influences the functioning of different components.

Example: The elevated existence expectancy of human beings and attention of fitness cognizance has extended the demand for many fitness merchandise like weight loss program coke, olive oil, and so many fitness products.

3.4 Dynamic Nature

The enterprise surroundings is dynamic in nature and maintains on altering in phrases of :

(a) Technological improvement,

(b) Shifts in purchaser preferences,

(c) The entry of new opposition in the market.

Example: Many mounted agencies in FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer goods) area are focusing on producing the items with herbal substances with the entry of ‘Patanjali Products’.

3.5 Uncertainty

The adjustments in the commercial enterprise surroundings can’t be envisioned precisely due to the fact of future uncertainties.

It is very challenging to predict the adjustments in the financial and social environment.

Example: There has been a sharp decline in the expenses of Android smartphones due to the entry of many new companies.

3.6 Complexity

All forces of the Business surroundings are interrelated and dynamic, which makes it tough to understand.

Complex nature of Business surroundings can be understood if we find out about it in parts.

Example: Increase in items and provider tax to 15 percent would make bigger the income of the authorities (economic), which would assist the authorities to enhance social being of human beings (social) and minimize the private disposable earnings of prosperous humans and thereby controlling inflation.

3.7 Relativity

Business Environment differs from area to place, location to place and usa to country.

Example: In China, the electrical energy to the enterprise is supplied at less expensive quotes as the consumption will increase and hence,

it leads to mass manufacturing whereas, in India, it is otherwise, greater consumption of electrical energy leads to high-priced electrical energy which consequences in decrease manufacturing & greater fee of production.

4. Why It is Important for Business Enterprises to Understand Their Environment?

4.1 It Benefits in Tapping Useful Resources

Business and enterprise avail the assets (inputs) from the surroundings and convert them into usable merchandise (output) and supply to society.

The surroundings affords a variety of inputs (resources) like finance, machines, uncooked materials, energy and water, labour etc.

The enterprise company affords outputs such as items and offerings to the customers, price of taxes to the government, interest/dividend to traders and so on.

Example: With the demand for the ultra-modern technology, producers will faucet the sources from the surroundings to manufacture LED TVs and Smart TVs alternatively than gathering assets for coloration or black & white TVs.

4.2 It Helps in Coping With Rapid Changes

The enterprise surroundings is altering very unexpectedly and the enterprise is getting affected with the aid of altering market conditions.

Turbulent market environment, much less company loyalty, divisions of markets, modifications in fashion, extra stressful customers, and world opposition are some examples of altering the enterprise environment.

Example: Jack Ma began Alibaba as he may want to see big possible in E-Commerce

5. What is means of Dimension of Business Environment?

Dimension of Business Environment

The dimensions of business Environment includes political, legal ,social, economic and technological environment , the administration of each business will benefit from being wise to of those dimensions instead of being unbiased in them. 

epigrammatic argument of the multiple factors comprising the worldwide environment of the corporate is provided below:

5.1 Legal Environment

  • It includes numerous laws passed by the government, body orders issued by government authorities, court judgments furthermore as choices rendered by the central, state or native governments.
  • Understanding of legal information may be a pre-requisite for the graceful functioning of business and industry.
  • Understanding the legal surroundings by business homes facilitate them to not fall in an exceedingly legal tangle.
  • The legal environment includes numerous laws like firms Act 2013, shopper Protection Act 1986, Policies regarding licensing & approvals, Policies concerning foreign trade etc.

Example: Labour laws followed by companies help them to stay off from penalties.

5.2 Political Environment

  • It means the actions were taken by the government, which probably AN effect on} the routine activities of any business or company on a domestic or at the worldwide level.
  • The success of business and business depends upon the government’s angle towards the business and industry, Stability of Government, Peace within the country.

Example: Political stability and central government’s attitudes towards business, industry and employment, has attracted several national and international business entrepreneurs to take a position in India.

5.3 Economic Environment

  • The economic surroundings consists of an economic system, economic policies and economic conditions prevailing in an exceedingly country.
  • Interest Rates, Taxes, Inflation, stock exchange Indices, price of Rupee, Personal Disposable Income, percentage etcetera are the factors that affect the economic environment.

Example: A rise within the income of individuals thanks to a decrease in tax rates in an exceedingly country creates additional demand for products.

5.4 Social surroundings

  • Social Environment consists of social forces like traditions, values, social trends, level of education, the quality of living etcetera of these forces have an enormous impact on business.
  • Tradition: It refers to social practices that have lasted for decades, appreciate Ugadi, Deepavali, Id, Christmas,etc.,
  • Impact: More demand throughout festivals provides opportunities for numerous businesses.
  • Values: It refers to ethical principles prevailing in the society, such as Freedom of alternative in the market, Social Justice, Equality of opportunity, Non-discriminatory practices etc.
  • Impact: The organizations’ that believe values maintain a decent name in society and realize ease in marketing their merchandise.
  • Social Trends: It refers to a general amendment or development within the society, appreciate health and fitness trend among urban dwellers.
  • Impact: Health and fitness trend has created demand for gyms, drinking water etc.

5.5 Technological Environment

  • It consists of scientific enhancements and innovations which give new ways in which of manufacturing goods, rendering services, new ways and techniques to work a business.
  • It is incredibly vital for a firm to know the amount of scientific achievements of a selected economy before introducing its products.
  • Technological compatibility of products also drives the demand for factory-made merchandise by a company.

Example: E-commerce has modified the state of affairs of doing the business, shopping for merchandise and availing services at the press of a mouse or through mobile, Digital Bharat initiative by the govt and move towards a paperless society.


6.1 Increasing Competition

De-licencing and entry of overseas corporations Indian market is expanded the degree of opposition for Indian firms.

6.2 More Demanding Customers

Now clients are greater conscious and they preserve most statistics of the market as the end result of which now market is customer/buyer oriented.

Now, merchandise are produced preserving in thought the needs of the customers.

6.3 Rapid Changing Technological Environment

Rapid Technological development has changed/improved the manufacturing method end result of which most manufacturing is feasible at minimal fee however it leads to challenging challenges in the front of small firms.

6.4 Necessity for Change- After New Industrial

Policy the market forces (demand & supply) are altering at a very quick rate.

Changing  range of aspects of enterprise surroundings has made it vital for the commercial enterprise companies to regulate their insurance policies & operations from time to time.

6.5 Need for Developing Human Resources

The altering market prerequisites of nowadays requires human beings with greater competence and higher commitment, therefore there is a want for creating human sources which should expand their effectiveness and efficiency.

6.6 Market Orientation

Earlier promoting thinking was once well-known in the market now its location is taken by way of the advertising concept.

Today corporations produce these items & offerings which are required via the customers.

Marketing research, academic advertising, after income offerings have end up extra significant.

6.7 Reduction in budgetary Support to Public Sector

The budgetary assist given through the authorities to the public zone is decreasing therefore the public area has to live to tell the tale and develop via utilising their personal sources effectively.

Previous Years Examination Questions

1 Why is it stated that commercial enterprise surroundings is uncertain

Ans. Business surroundings is unsure as it is hard to predict future happenings when surroundings modifications are taking region frequently.

2 What is covered in ‘Political Environment’ of business? State.

Ans. The following elements are blanketed in political surroundings of business:

(i) Constitutional framework
(ii)Political system
(iii)Political structure
(iv) Government interventions in business
(v) Foreign coverage and defence coverage of the country

3 What is covered in ‘Legal Environment’ of business? State.

Ans. Legal surroundings includes:

(i) Several acts surpassed by means of government.
(ii) Court judgements
(iii) Statutory warnings prescribed below law.
(iv) Legislations exceeded by using the government, e.g. quintessential commodities, etc.

4 Why is commercial enterprise surroundings referred to as dynamic State?

Ans. Business surroundings is dynamic as it maintains on changing. It is no longer static and its factors are fairly flexible, e.g. technological improvements, extend in competition, etc.

5. What is covered in the ‘Technological Environment’ of business? State

Ans. Technological surroundings consists of scientific upgrades and innovations, which grant new methods of producing items and services. It additionally consists of information strategies and methods of working a business.

6. Business surroundings consists of each precise and standard forces. List any 4 unique forces. 

Ans. Specific forces of enterprise surroundings are:

(i) Suppliers                                                          (ii)    Investors
(iii) Customers                                                     (iv)     Competitors

7. Business surroundings consists of each unique and ordinary forces. List any 4 typical forces.

Ans. Genera! forces of commercial enterprise surroundings are:

(i) Social                                                                (ii)    Political
(iii) Technological                                               (iv)     Legal

8. The perception of enterprise surroundings helps the managers to perceive threats. What is supposed by way of ‘threats’ here?

Ans. Threats refer to the exterior surroundings traits and adjustments that will avert a firm’s performance.

9. The appreciation of enterprise surroundings allows the association to discover the opportunities. What is intended by way of ‘opportunities’ here?

Ans. Opportunities refer to the high-quality exterior traits or modifications that will assist a association to enhance its performance.

10. What is intended by using commercial enterprise environment? Explain dynamic nature and uncertainty as aspects of enterprise environment.

Ans. Business surroundings is the sum complete of all individuals, establishments and different forces like customers, competitors, suppliers, distributors, enterprise trends, substitutes, rules authorities activities, social and cultural elements that are outdoor the manage of the commercial enterprise organization however can also have an effect on its performance.

Features of enterprise surroundings are:

Dynamic nature Business surroundings is dynamic as it continues on changing. It is no longer static and its aspects are extraordinarily flexible, e.g. technological improvements, make bigger in competition, etc.

Uncertainty Business surroundings is unsure as it is hard to predict future happenings when surroundings adjustments are taking location frequently

11. Why is the grasp of enterprise surroundings necessary for Explain with the assist of any 4 points. 


Understanding of surroundings through enterprise managers permits them now not solely to become aware of and evaluate, or

however additionally to react to the forces exterior to their firms? In the mild of the statement, provide an explanation for any 4 factors of importance, of enterprise environment.   


Explain any 4 factors of significance of enterprise environement.


State any 5 factors which make clear how grasp of enterprise surroundings helps the managers?   


Explain via giving any 5 motives why grasp of commercial enterprise surroundings is necessary for managers ?


Explain through giving any 4 points, why ‘in the existing day aggressive market, it is critical   enterprise to continue to be alert and conscious of its environment’? 

Why is the grasp of enterprise surroundings necessary for Explain with the assist of any 4 points. 


Understanding of surroundings through enterprise managers permits them now not solely to become aware of and evaluate, or

however additionally to react to the forces exterior to their firms? In the mild of the statement, provide an explanation for any 4 factors of importance, of enterprise environment.   


Explain any 4 factors of significance of enterprise environement.


State any 5 factors which make clear how grasp of enterprise surroundings helps the managers?   


Explain via giving any 5 motives why grasp of commercial enterprise surroundings is necessary for managers ?


Explain through giving any 4 points, why ‘in the existing day aggressive market, it is critical   enterprise to continue to be alert and conscious of its environment? 

Ans. In the existing day of aggressive market, it is necessary for a commercial enterprise to continue to be alert and conscious of its

environment, due to the fact of the following points:

(i) Identify possibilities and getting the first mover gain Awareness of surroundings helps an organisation to become aware of the possibilities prevailing in the market and they can make techniques to capitalise such possibilities at the earliest, e.g. Maruti Udyog grew to be the chief in the small auto market due to the fact it used to be the first, who known the want for small motors in the environment.

(ii) Identify threats and early warning indicators Environmental recognition helps an employer in figuring out viable threats in future, so that the enterpirse can take well timed measures to minimise the threats and its unfavourable effects, if any, e.g. when the new corporations entered in the mid phase vehicles (threat), Maruti Udyog accelerated the manufacturing of its Esteem car. Increase in manufacturing enabled the organization to make quicker delivery. As a result, the employer captured a good sized share of the market and grew to become a chief in this segment.

(iii) Assist in planning and coverage formula Environment focus helps a commercial enterprise unit to perceive possibilities and threats in the market. These serve as a foundation for planning future direction of motion and making insurance policies for the same.

(iv) Tapping beneficial assets A enterprise surroundings is an open machine which receives sources such as capital, labour, machines, materials, and many others from the environment, converts them into items and offerings preferred by way of the clients and then materials its output to the environment. Thus, a enterprise company depends on its exterior surroundings for tapping more than a few assets and for the sale of its output.

12. What is supposed by means of ‘business environment’? Explain any three aspects of enterprise environment.


Explain any 4 traits of enterprise environment.


State any 5 facets of enterprise environment.

Ans. Business surroundings is the sum whole of all individuals, establishments and different forces like customers, competitors, suppliers, distributors, enterprise trends, substitutes, regulations, authorities activities, social and cultural elements that are backyard the manage of the enterprise employer however may also have an effect on its performance.

The predominant facets of commercial enterprise surroundings are:

(i) Totality of exterior forces Business surroundings is the sum complete of all exterior forces outdoor the manipulate of a business.

(ii) Consists of particular and widely wide-spread forces Specific forces are those, which influences the person enterprises, viz competitors, customers, investors, and suppliers. Whereas usual forces have an have an effect on on all commercial enterprise enterprises. The familiar forces incorporate of social, political, legal, monetary and technological forces.

(iii) Complexity Business surroundings is complex, as to apprehend it in totality, e.g. it will become tough to comprehend the extent of relative have an effect on of social, economic, political, felony and technological, elements on alternate in demand of a product.

(iv) Uncertainty Business surroundings is mostly unsure as it is very challenging to predict future happenings, specifically when adjustments take region at a speedy pace.

(v) Relativity Business surroundings is relative as it differs from region to area and place to region.

13. The courtroom surpassed an order that all colleges have to have water purifiers for the faculty adolescents as

Society in accepted is extra involved about pleasant of life.

Innovative methods are being developed to manufacture water purifiers at aggressive rates.

Incomes are rising and youth at domestic are additionally consuming purified water.

The authorities additionally displaying high quality mindset in the direction of the water cleaner business.

Identify the one of kind dimensions of commercial enterprise surroundings through quoting from the above details.    

Ans. The courtroom exceeded an order that all faculties should have water purifier’.

The quoted line is depicting prison environment. Business has to feature inside the framework of legal guidelines and rules of the country. Legal surroundings workouts substantial an impact on enterprise activities.

(i) ‘Society in customary is greater worried about fine of life’.

The quoted line is depicting the social surroundings as this surroundings consists of all the social and cultural forces inside which commercial enterprise companies operate

(ii)  ‘Innovative strategies are being developed to manufacture water purifiers at aggressive rates’.

The quoted line is depicting the technological environment. It consists of forces referringscientific upgrades and improvements which grant new approaches of producing items and services.

(iii) ‘Incomes are rising and teenagers at domestic are additionally consuming purified water’.

The quoted line is depicting the monetary environment. It consists of the elements and forces regarding potential of manufacturing and distribution of wealth. It consists of all such forces of monetary improvement which impact the product’s market scope of business.

(iv) ‘The authorities is additionally displaying advantageous mindset in the direction of the water cleanser business’.

The quoted line is depicting the political environment. It is worried with the forces associated with political stability, and political stipulations that have robust influence on business.

14. The courtroom handed an order to ban polythene baggage as

These baggage are growing many environmental troubles which have an effect on the lifestyles of humans in general.

Society in normal is extra worried about great of life.

The authorities determined to provide subsidy to jute enterprise to promote this business.

Innovative strategies are being developed to manufacture jute luggage at low rates.

Incomes are rising and human beings can manage to pay for to purchase these bags.

Identify the special dimensions of enterprise surroundings through quoting the traces from the above particulars.  

Ans. ‘The court docket exceeded an order to ban polythene bags’.

The quoted line is depicting the criminal environment. Business has to feature inside the framework of legal guidelines and policies of the country. Legal surroundings workout routines full-size have an effect on on enterprise activities.

‘Polythene luggage are developing many environmental troubles which have an effect on the existence of humans in general’ and ‘society in common is greater involved about first-class of life’.

These quoted traces are depicting the social environment, which consists of all the social and cultural forces inside which enterprise corporations operate.

‘Government determined to provide subsidy to jute enterprise to promote this business’.

The quoted line is depicting the political environment, which is worried with the forces associated with political balance and political stipulations that have robust have an effect on on business.

‘Innovative methods are being developed to manufacture jute baggage at low rates’.

The quoted line is depicting the technological environment. It consists of forces concerning to scientific enhancements and improvements which grant new methods of producing items and services.

‘Incomes are rising and humans can have enough money to purchase these bags’.

The quoted line is depicting the monetary environment. It consists of the elements and forces regarding ability of manufacturing and distribution of wealth. It consists of all such forces of monetary improvement which have an impact on the product’s market scope of business.

15. Management of each and every business enterprise can be benefited from being conscious of distinct dimensions of enterprise environment. Explain any 4 such dimensions (All India 2010]

Ans. Dimensions of commercial enterprise surroundings are as follows :

(i) Economic surroundings It consists of financial elements that affect the enterprise in a country. These elements encompass Gross National Product, company profits, inflation rate, employment, Balance of Payments, hobby rates, purchaser income, etc. Economic environment in a united states has robust impact on the enterprise in that country.

(ii) Social surroundings It describes the traits of the society in which the corporation exists. Literacy rate, customs, price beliefs, existence style, demographic aspects and mobility of populace are the phase of the social environment. The fashion of exchange can be estimated properly in advance. It is vital for managers to be aware the course in which the society is shifting and formulate innovative insurance policies in accordance to the altering social scenario.

(iii) Political surroundings It is the effect of a mixture of a range of ideologies encouraged by way of unique political parties. Every political birthday party has a kind mind-set closer to commercial enterprise community. A stay instance of this, can be viewed for the duration of elections when there is a fluctuation in the share market.

(iv) Legal surroundings It consists of regulation that is exceeded with the aid of the Parliament and country legislatures. This element units the framework of regulation inside which the enterprise is free to operate. Example of such law specially goals at enterprise operations which consist of the Trade Marks Act, 1969, Essential Commodities Act, 1955, Standards of Weights and Measures Act, 1969 and Consumer Protection Act, 1986.

Business Studies Class 12 Notes Principles of Management

Management is imperative to any agency that desires to be environment friendly and reap its aims.

Without all people in a function of authority there would be organizational anarchy with no shape and very little, if any focus.

It has been noted that administration has 4 essential elements – planning, organizing, essential and controlling.

Common feel dictates that besides these ideas of administration being in region an enterprise would have hassle accomplishing its aims, or even coming up with targets in the first place!

A standard thinking on the thoughts of administration was as soon as written by way of capacity of Henri Fayol.

It seeks to divide administration into 14 principles.

We’ll take a appear at these fundamental principles of administration and supply a rationalization for them in accessible to understand terminology

Henri Fayol, 1900

Henri Fayol born in Istanbul in 1841.

When he used to be 19, he commenced working as an engineer at a massive mining organisation in France.

He sooner or later grew to be the director, at a time when the mining business enterprise employed extra than 1,000 people.

Through the years, Fayol started out to advance what he regarded to be the 14 most essential ideas of management.

Essentially, these defined how managers must prepare and have interaction with staff.

Two years earlier in 1916 when he becomes director , he posted his “14 Principles of Management” in the e book “Administration Industrielle et Générale.”

Fayol additionally created a listing of the six foremost features of management, which go hand in hand with the Principles.

Fayol’s “14 Principles” was once one of the earliest theories of administration to be created, and stays one of the most comprehensive.

He’s viewed to be amongst the most influential contributors to the present day thinking of management, even even though human beings do not refer to “The 14 Principles” frequently today.

The principle falls underneath the Administrative Management college of thinking (as adverse to the Scientific Management school, ledthrough Fredrick Taylor)

Principles of Management or Henri fayol 14 principles of management  

These principles of management are broader and based on general guidelines which helps the managers is decision making for the organisation

1. Division of Work

Henri believed that segregating work in the group of workers amongst the employee will decorate the exceptional of the product.

Similarly, he additionally concluded that the division of work improves the productivity, efficiency, accuracy and pace of the workers.

This precept is fabulous for each the managerial as nicely as a technical work level.

For example, Peter England, a well-known manufacturer title amongst first-class shirts has divided its work amongst more than a few groups.

One crew is accountable for making collars, different is engaged in stitching buttons, but every other is engaged in packing things to do and so forth

2. Authority and Responsibility

These are the two key factors of management.

Authority allows the administration to work efficiently, and accountability makes them accountable for the work performed beneath their training or leadership.

For example, Mr. Kamal , who is working as income manager, has to settle a deal with a buyer.

He finds out that if he provides a savings length of 30 days he is possibly to settle the deal which will carry on  internet  and gives income of Rs.55 crores to the company.

Suppose the organisation offers strength to Mr. Aziz to provide a deposit length of solely 20 days, he may additionally no longer be in a position to settle the deal.

Thus obviously, be the supervisor need to granted authority to provide deposit duration of 30 days which would be in the interests of the enterprise

3. Discipline

Without discipline, nothing can be accomplished.

It is the core price for any task or any management.

Good overall performance and good interrelation make the administration job handy and comprehensive.

Employees exact behaviour additionally helps them easily construct and development in their expert careers.

4. Unity of Command

In this the  worker must have solely one boss and comply with his command.

If a worker has to comply with extra than one boss, there starts offevolved a war of pastime and can create confusion.

5. Unity of Direction

Whoever is engaged in the equal undertaking need to have a unified goal.

This capacity all the man or woman working in  agency must have one aim and reason which will make the work less complicated and gain the set aim easily.

6. Subordination of Individual Interest

This suggests a enterprise ought to work unitedly toward the hobby of a corporation instead than non-public interest.

Be subordinate to the functions of an organization. This refers to the complete chain of command in a company.

7. Remuneration

This performs a vital function in motivating the employees of a company.

Remuneration can be financial or non-monetary. However, it must be in accordance to an individual’s efforts they have made.

8. Centralization

In any company, the administration or any authority accountable for the decision-making procedure need to be neutral.

However, this relies upon on the dimension of an organization.

Henri Fayol pressured on the factor that there need to be a stability between the hierarchy and division of power.

9. Scalar Chain

Fayol on this precept highlights that the hierarchy steps ought to be from the pinnacle to the lowest.

This is fundamental so that each worker is aware of their instantaneous senior additionally they must be in a position to contact any, if needed.

10. Order

A organisation ought to preserve a well-defined work order to have a beneficial work culture.

The wonderful ecosystem in the place of job will enhance greater high quality productivity.

11. Equity

All personnel have to be handled equally and respectfully.

It’s the duty of a supervisor that no personnel face discrimination.

12. Stability

A worker supplies the great if they sense tightly closed in their job.

It is the responsibility of the administration to provide job protection to their employees.

13. Initiative

The administration ought to help and motivate the personnel to take initiatives in an organization.

It will assist them to enlarge their hobby and make then worth.

14. Esprit de Corps

It is the accountability of the administration to encourage their personnel and be supportive of every different regularly.

Developing have confidence and mutual perception will lead to a high quality result and work environment.

This 14 concepts of administration are used to control an employer and are really helpful for prediction, planning, decision-making, employer and procedure management, manage and coordination.

Questions and Answers

1)Discuss in detail henri fayol 14 principles of management?

Answer:Refer part 1

छत्तीसगढ़: सीमा तथा विस्तार भौगोलिक परिचय

छ.ग. राज्य लगभग 17.46 उतरीय अक्षांश से 24.5 उतरी अक्षांश तथा 80.15 पुर्वी देशान्तर में 84.25 पूर्वी देशान्तर के बीच स्थित है,


छ.ग. राज्य का क्षेत्रफल -1,35,192 वर्ग ाउ देश का 26 वाॅ राज्य (27 वाॅ उत्तराखण्ड, 28 वाॅ झारखण्ड,29 वाॅ 2जून 2014 तेलंगाना)

  • देश के क्षेत्रफल का हिस्सा – 4.11ः
  • म.प्र. के क्षेत्रफल का हिस्सा – 30.47ः

1)जनसंख्या –

  • कुल जनसंख्या – 2.55 करोड़
  • जनसंख्या की दृष्टि से – 16वाॅ बड़ा राज्य
  • भारत की कुल जनसंख्या का प्रतिशत – 2.11ः
  • जनसंख्या वृ़िद्ध दर – 22.61:
  • नगरीय जनसंख्या का -23.24ः
  • ग्रामीण जनसंख्या का – 76.76ः
  • पृथक राज्य के रूप में प्रथम जनगणना – 2001 में
  • जनसंख्या घनत्व -189 व्यक्ति प्रति वर्ग कि.मि.
  • साक्षरता दर – 70.28
  • पुरूष साक्षरता दर – 80.27
  • महिला साक्षरता दर – 60.24

2) भौगोलिक निर्देशांक –

  • अक्षांशिय विस्तार – 17.46 से 24.5 उत्तरीय अक्षांश
  • देशांतरीय विस्तार – 80.15 से 84.25 पूर्वी देशांतर

3) सीमांत लम्बाई –

  • उत्तर से दक्षिण (अक्षांश) – 7000ाउ
  • पूर्व से पश्चिम (देशांतर) – 435ाउ

4) भू आवेष्ठित जिला-

कुल भू आवेष्ठित जिला – 09

सरगुजा 2. कोरबा 3. जांजगिर चांपा 4. बलौदाबाजार 5.रायपुर 6. बेमेतरा 7. दुर्ग 8. बालोद 9. दन्तेवाड़ा

कुल सीमावर्ती जिला – 18

5) कटिबंध क्षेत्र –

  • उष्ण कटिबंध क्षेत्र – विषुवत रेखा से 23.1/2 डिग्रि कर्क रेखा तक
  • शीतोष्ण कटिबंध क्षेत्र -कर्क रेखा से 66.1/2 डिग्रि उत्तरी अक्षांश तक
  • 3001 एवं शीताष्ण संयुक्त कटिबंध में शामिल जिले कोरिया , सुरजपुर , बलरामपुर
  • कटिबंध विस्तार के आधार पर छ.ग. राज्य मुख्यतः उष्ण कटिबंध क्षेत्र में शामिल है ।

Scilab Basics

What is Scilab?

Scilab is free and open source software for engineers & scientists. Scilab was developed with Scilab team within ESI Group.

It is a high level numerical oriented programming language.

Sci lab is used for Mathematics and Simulation, Optimization, Statistics Signal Processing,  Algorithm and application development, 2D and 3D data visualization, Image processing and Computer vision, in field of IoT.

Scilab is a interpreted language. IT has a variety of functions to solve complex problems easily.

Scilab is available under the GPL License. It means any one can

Use the software for any purpose,

Change the software to suit your needs,

Share the software with your friends and neighbors, and

Share the changes you make.

Scilab keywords

Following are keywords in Scilab

  • backslash — (\) left matrix division.
  • brackets [,;] — Concatenation. Recipients of an assignment. Results of a function
  • colon (:) — Ranging operator. Addresses all elements along an array dimension or of a list.
  • comma — (,) comma; instruction, argument separator
  • comments — (// or /*…*/) comments
  • comparison — comparison, relational operators
  • dollar — ($) last index
  • dot — (.) symbol
  • equal — (=) assignment , comparison, equal sign
  • getscilabkeywords — returns a list with all scilab keywords.
  • hat — (^) exponentiation
  • greater — (>) greater than comparison
  • minus — (-) subtraction operator. Sign change
  • not — (~) logical not
  • parentheses — ( ) left and right parenthesis
  • percent — (%) special character
  • plus (+) — Numerical addition. Text concatenation (gluing)
  • quote — (‘) transpose operator, string delimiter
  • semicolon — (;) ending expression and row separator
  • slash — (/) right divisions. System’s feed back. Comments
  • star — (*) multiplication operator
  • symbols — scilab operator names
  • tilde — (~) logical not

Scilab variables 

In Scilab everything is matrix. Scilab uses Boolean,string, integer and complex numbers

Rules for Variable names

  • Variable names can take as long as you want.
  • Variable are case sensitive.
  • It allows characters (A-Z,a-z) digits(0-9) and special symbols(%,_,#,!,$,?).
  • First letter must be character or special character (%,_,#,!,$,?).
  • Multilingual UTF-8 characters are accepted.

Assigning value to variable

Scilab Constants

Sr No Constant Description
1 SCI, WSCI Variable containing the value of the root path of Scilab.
2 SCIHOME Contains the path to preferences, history files of your Scilab session.
3 TMPDIR Temporary directory path.
4 home Gives the user directory.
5 %e Euler number.
6 %eps epsilon (floating-point relative accuracy)
7 %f or %F Boolean variable for false.
8 %i imaginary unit
9 %inf infinity
10 %nan not-a-number
11 %pi ratio of circle’s circumference to its diameter
12 %s A variable used to define polynomials.
13 %t or %T Boolean variable for true.
14 %z A variable used to define polynomials.


To make single line comment // are used and to make multiline comment /*  and  */

are used.


// This is a single line comment

/* this is
Multiline comment*/

Basic Operators

Arithmetic Operators

Scilab has following arithmetic operators

Sr No Operator Example
1 + (Addition) 5+4=9
2 – (Substraction) 5-4=1
3 * (Multiplication) 5*4=9
4 / (Division) 4/2=2
5 ^ (Power) 2^3=8

Relational Operators

Scilab has following relational operators

Sr NoOperatorExample
1>5<6 (Less than)       T
2< (Greater than)6<7        F
3   <=  (Less than equals to)5<=6     T
4  >= (Greater than equals to)6>=7     F
5==   (Equals to)6==6     T
6~=  (Not Equals to)   or  <>7 ~=5     F

Logical Operators

Logical operator of scilab is as below

Sr No Operator Example
1 & (AND) %T & %F  F
2 |  (OR) %T |%F T
3 ~ (NOT) ~%T F

If else Statements

In programming we have to choose any one choice either this or that. in this case to choose one among two options we use if else statement.

Syntax of if else is as below

Lets see one example to check greater among two numbers


Using both if and else condition is scilab


Select Statements

To select among multiple options scilab uses select statements

Syntax is select statement

Based on matching case expression statements are executed.

If no case expression is matched then else part is executed.

Here else is optional.

Example of case statement is as below


Looping Statements

Scilab supports for and while statements for looping

Syntax of for statment


How to perform reverse loop in scialb?


Use of break and continue

Break is used to end the looping statements.

Continue transfers the control to the beginning of loop statement.

Example of break

When break keyword is used in above program it break the loop and print value 1,2 and 3.


Example of continue

When continue occurs in program it transfers the control to beginning of loop


  1. While  is a another looping keyword

Syntax is

while expr


Function definition syntax

Scilab function to add two numbers.

Above is a function definition. To call sum function use sum(val1,val2) as below.

Scilab function to find max of two numbers

How to create a file is scilab

open a new file

write a basic statement

disp("Display from file")

Save file.

press F5 .

this will execute command on command window.

Basics of Goods and Services Tax

What is GST?

Goods and Services Tax is known as GST.

It is an indirect taxation system that has replaced numerous indirect taxes in India like services tax, VAT, the excise duty, etc.

The Goods and Services Tax was passed in the Indian Parliament on March29th, 2017, and came into effect on July 1st, 2017.

In other words, GST (Goods and Service Tax) is levied on the supply of services and goods.

Goods and Services Tax (GST) Law in India is a destination-based, multi-stage, comprehensive tax levied on every value addition.

Now let’s discuss the definition of GST, as mentioned above in detail.

  • Multi-Stage- A product goes through multiple stages along its supply chain- Starting from the manufacturer himself to the customer’s final sale. 

Do consider the following stages-

  1. Raw materials purchased
  2. Manufacturing or production
  3. Warehousing of finished goods
  4. Selling to wholesalers
  5. Sale of the items to the retailers
  6. Purchase made to the end customers

Thus, GST is levied on each of the stages mentioned above, making it a multi stage tax system.

  • Value Addition- Consider a case of a manufacturer who produces biscuits. He/she has to buy sugar, flour, and other materials. The value of the inputs become more as the flour and sugar are mixed and baked into biscuits.

The manufacturing unit/ company sells these biscuits to the warehousing agents who pack large quantities of biscuits in big boxes and label them.

After this, the sale is made to the retailer by the warehousing agent.

The retailer then packages the biscuits in smaller units and invests in the marketing of the product.

Goods and Service Tax is levied and collected on the additions of value, i.e., the monetary value added at each step to attain the final sale to the end consumer.

  • Destination based- Now consider the case when the goods or the products are manufactured in Uttar Pradesh and sold to the final customer in Madhya Pradesh. The entire tax revenue collected goes to the state of Madhya Pradesh and not Uttar Pradesh as the Goods and Services Tax is levied at the point of end consumption.

Therefore, GST is a single domestic tax law for the whole nation.

Under the Goods and Service Tax, the tax is levied on every point of sale.

State GST and Central GST are charged in the case of intrastate sales.

All the interstate sales are chargeable to the Integrated Goods and Services Tax.

The Journey of GST in India

The Goods and Services Tax began its journey in India in 2000 when a committee was set up to draft the law about it.

From then, it took 17 years for the law to evolve.

In the year 2017, the Goods and Services Bill was passed in the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha.

On July 1st, 2017, the Goods and Services Law came into force in India. 

Constitutional Framework for GST

The Constitution contains the state list and the union list within which the power to levy separate taxes is given to the states and center, respectively.

Goods and Services Tax was to be levied so that both the states and the center received the power to collect and levy it.

Further, the legislation had to remain consistent across the various states, union territories, and the center legislatures.

To provide for this, an amendment in the Constitution was required.

Constitution (101st Amendment) Act, 2016

To suitably implement the Goods and Services Tax legislation, this Act resulted in the amendment, deletion, and insertion of the Constitution’s specific articles.

The following matters were dealt with as a result of changes:

  1. The way of giving compensation to states for loss of costs on account of the Goods and Services Tax
  2. The discontinuation of the existing taxes to provide a way for the Goods and Services Tax
  3. The duties, powers, and Constitution of the GST Council
  4. The way of appointment of costs from Goods and Services Tax among states and center
  5. The scope and the applicability of the GST law
  6. The delineation of powers to make laws and to levy them concerning GST

Article 246A: Special Provision for GST

This article was inserted to provide power to the respective center and union legislatures and the Parliament to make laws on Goods and Services Tax, respectively, imposed by them.

However, the Indian Parliament is given the exclusive power to make laws concerning interstate supplies.

The Integrated Goods and Services Tax deals with the inter-state supplies.

Thus, the power to make laws under the Integrated Goods and Services Tax Act will rest exclusively with the Indian Parliament.

Further, this article excludes the below-mentioned items from the scope of Goods and Services Tax until a date suggested by the Goods and Services Tax Council-

  1. Aviation Turbine Fuel
  2. Natural Gas
  3. Motor Spirit
  4. High-Speed Diesel
  5. Petroleum Crude

Article 269A: Collection and Levy of Goods and Services Tax for Inter-State Supply

While Article 246A gives the Parliament the exclusive power to implement inter-state supplies laws, the distribution of costs from such supplies between the state and center is covered in this article.

It also allows the Goods and Services Tax Council to formulate rules in this regard.

The import of services and goods will also be called as inter-state supplies.

This provides the center the power to levy Integrated Goods and Services Tax on import transactions.

The import of goods was subject to CVD (Countervailing Duty) in the earlier taxation scheme.

Integrated Goods and Services Tax levy helps a taxpayer to get the IGST credit paid on import along the supply chain, which was not possible earlier.

Article 279A: Goods and Services Tax Council

This article provides power to the president to constitute a joint forum of the states and the Goods and Services Tax Council center.

The Goods and Services Tax Council which is implemented by the Article 279A is the top member committee to procure, reconcile, or to modify any regulation or law based on the context of GST in India.

Article 286: Restrictions on Imposition of Tax

This was an existing article that restricted states from passing any law, which provides them to collect tax on purchase or sale of products either in import transactions or outside the state.

It was further amended to restrict the passing of legislationin case of services too. Further, the term ‘supply’ replaces ‘purchase or sale.’

Article 366: Addition of Important/ Essential Definitions

Article 366 was existing was an existing article which is amended to include the below-mentioneddefinitions-

  1. State and Union Territories with the legislature
  2. Services refer to anything other than products
  3. GST infers the tax on supply of services, goods, or both. It is essential to note that the supply of alcohol or liquor for human beings’ consumption is excluded from the purview of Goods and Services Tax.

Compensation to the states under Goods and Services Tax

This Act also has a provision to provide relief to the states on account of the decrease in revenues to the states arising due to the implementation of the Goods and Services Tax.

It has a validity of five years. The GST Act (Compensation to States) 2017 was born as a result.

What does the Seventh Schedule State?

The Seventh Schedule to article 246 contains three lists, which consists of the matters under which the state and the union governments can implement laws.

  1. List 1- Union List
  2. List 2- State List
  3. List 3- Concurrent List


To administer Goods and Services Tax in a nation like India, a model was designed to implement both States and Centre.

This is done because India is a federal nation. Here, both the states and the center have the powers to collect and levy taxes through their respective legislations.

Accordingly, a Dual Goods and Services Tax model was implemented to distribute and assign powers to both the states and the center to levy the charges concurrently.

And therefore, depending upon the nature of supply, components of the Goods and Services Tax are as follows-

  • Integrated GST (IGST)
  • Union Territory GST (UTGST)
  • State GST (SGST) and
  • Central GST (CGST)

CGST- Central Goods and Services Tax

CGST, or Central Goods and Services Tax, is an indirect tax collected and levied directly by India’s central government on the inter-state supplies.

Note- Such supplies do not include alcohol or liquor for the consumption of human beings.

The Central Goods and Services Tax levy is governed by the Central Goods and Services Act, 2017.

And such a tax is levied on the transaction value of the services and goods supplied as per section 15 of the Central Goods and Services Act, 2017.

The transaction value is the cost/ price payable or paid for the said supply of services and goods.

State Goods and Services Tax (SGST)

State Goods and Services Tax is an indirect tax collected and levied by the state governments on the intrastate supplies.

Note- Such supplies do not endorse alcohol or liquor for the consumption of human beings.

The State Goods and Services Tax is governed by the State Goods and Services Act 2017 or SGST 2017.

And this tax is levied on the transaction value of the services or goods supplied as per section 15 of the State Goods and Services Tax Act.

The transactionvalue is the cost or price, which is payable or paid for the said supply of services or goods.

Integrated State Goods and Services Tax (IGST)

Integrated State Goods and Services Tax (CGST) is an indirect tax collected and levied by the Central Government on the interstate supply of services or goods.

Note- Such supplies do not include alcohol or liquor for the consumption of human beings.

The Integrated State Goods and Services Tax (CGST) levy is governed by the Integrated Goods and Services Tax Act 2017. And the same is apportioned between state and center governments.

Union Territory Goods and Services Tax (UTGST)

Union Territory Goods and Services Tax (UTGST) is an indirect tax collected and levied by the Union Territory on the intrastate supply of services or goods.

Note- Such supplies do not include alcohol or liquor for the consumption of human beings.

Union Territory Goods and Services Tax levy is governed by the Union Territory Goods and Services Act (UTGST) 2017.

The transaction value is the price payable or paid for the said supply of services or goods. 

Advantages of GST

Goods and Services Tax has mainly removed the cascading effect on the sale of services and goods.

The removal of the cascading effect has impacted the cost of goods since the Goods and Service Tax regime eliminates the tax on tax; its cost decreases.

Also, the Goods and Services Tax is primarily technologically driven.

All the activities, such as application for response and refund to notice, return filing, and registration, need to be done online on the Goods and Services Tax Portal, accelerating the processes.

The following are the advantages of GST-

  • Regulating the organized sectors
  • Increased efficiency in logistics
  • Defined treatment for E-Commerce activities
  • Relatively lesser compliances under GST
  • Simpler Online Facilities for GST Compliance
  • Composition scheme for small businesses
  • Higher threshold for GST registration
  • Removing the cascading effect of tax
  • Implementing the same tax structure across the country
  • Seamless flow of credit of all taxes
  • More transparency in doing businesses
  • Creating competitiveness in the industry
  • More control over tax evaders and fewer chances to avoid taxes will help in better administration
  • Decreased cost of collection and more revenue collection due to the use of GSTIN
  • Prices of services and commodities will reduce eventually due to the reduction in seamless credit

Business Studies Class 12 Notes Nature and Significance of Management

  Management is an artwork of getting matters performed with and via others. Management can be described as, the system of getting matters completed with the intention of attaining organizational dreams successfully and efficiently.

For Example

U mart is a non-public limited company with various branches all over the country.

It has a complex organization shape in which actual manufacturing is in the fingers of several knowledgeable artisans and marketing is accomplished by means of workforce at   branches and  Karishma manages the whole organization .

This means continuously presenting direction and motivation to her employees.

She also has to make certain that production is carried out in accordance to plans in order to make sure everyday sales.

An ordinary day in Karishma life consists of a sequence of interrelated and non-stop functions.

She has to format exclusive festive collection for Diwali and Christmas.

This means organising extra cash and recruiting extra artisans.

She also has to typically speak with her suppliers to make certain that deadlines regarding transport of items are met.

In the path of the day she meets customers for a conventional remarks So in this way effective and efficient manager is required for better managing the organization

Efficiency and Effectiveness

Efficiency (completing the work at low cost) ability doing the assignment effectively at minimal price via ideal utilization of sources whilst effectiveness (Completing the work on time) is involved with stop end result capability finishing the venture successfully inside stipulated time.

Although effectivity and effectiveness are specific yet they are inter related.

It is vital for administration to preserve a stability between the two.

1. Kamlesh organized a well-documented and factual file on Co’s overall performance however she ought to now not current it in Board assembly as she should now not whole it on time.

[Hint: Efficient but not effective]

2. Best roadways promised to supply items in time and charged greater cash from Mr. Sharma But the items had been no longer delivered on time.
[Hint: Efficient but  not effective]

Characteristics of Management

1. Goal oriented Process: It is a purpose oriented process, which is to obtain already exact and favored targets by using appropriate utilization of on hand resources.

For Example

example, the goal of a groceries store may be to enhance sales , but the goal of The ngo and societies   of India is to impart education to children Management unites the efforts of different individuals in the organization towards achieving such targets

2. Pervasive: Management is well-known in nature. It is used in all sorts of businesses whether or not economic, social or political irrespective of its size, nature and region and at every and each and every level.

For Example

A school  needs to be managed  much as a hospital or a ngo  so management is needed in every organization

3. Multidimensional: It is multidimensional as it includes administration of human beings,work and operations.

4. Continuous: It consists of a collection of feature and its features are being carried out by using all managers simultaneously.

The manner of administration continues until a corporation exists for reaching its objectives.

For Example

Manager of xyz ltd. Has to continue manage the affairs of the company in order to achieve organisational targets

5. Group Activity: It is a team endeavor considering it includes managing and coordinating things to do of special humans as a group to obtain the favored targets of the organization.

6. Dynamic features: It is a dynamic feature due to the fact it has to adapt in accordance to need, time and state of affairs of the altering commercial enterprise environment.

 For example, kfc  made principal adjustments in its ‘Menu’ to live to tell the tale in the Indian market.

7. Intangible Force: It is intangible pressure as it can’t be viewed however its results can be felt in the shape of effects like whether or not the goals are met and whether or not human beings are inspired or no longer and there is orderliness and coordination in the work environment.

Objectives of Management

(1) Organizational objectives

Organizational Objectives can be divided into three parts :

(A) Survival – Management via taking fantastic selections with regard to exclusive commercial enterprise things to do ensures survival of enterprise for lengthy term.

(B) Profit – It performs an essential position in dealing with commercial enterprise dangers and profitable strolling of enterprise activities.

(C) Growth – Management should make certain increase which can be measured by using enlarge in sales, variety of employees, wide variety of products, extra investment, etc.

(2) Social Objectives:

Social goals is to grant some advantages to society like making use of environmental pleasant practices in the manufacturing manner and giving employment to deprived sections of society, etc

Example: Asian Paints,TISCO,ITC,infoysys etc  continuously helping the society under corporate social responsibility

(3) Personal Objectives:

Personal Objectives is to focal point on various non-public targets of human beings working in the corporation which want to be reconciled with organizational objectives.

Importance of Management

(1) Achieving Group Goals: Management creates group work and coordination in the group. Managers supply frequent course to character efforts in reaching the typical desires of the organization.

(2) Increases Efficiency: Management will increase effectivity via the usage of assets in the high-quality viable manner to minimize value and expand productivity.

(3) Creates Dynamic organization: Management helps the personnel overcome their resistance to exchange and adapt as per altering scenario to make certain its survival and growth.

(4) Achieving private objectives: Management helps the people obtain their private desires whilst working in the direction of organizational objectives.

(5) Development of Society: Management helps in the improvement of society with the aid of producing accurate excellent products, developing employment possibilities and adopting new technologies.

Management as an Art:-

Art refers to skillful and non-public utility of present expertise to attain favored results.

It can be obtained via study, remark and experience. The elements of artwork as follows:

(1) Existence of theoretical knowledge: In each and every art, Systematic and prepared learn about fabric need to be handy compulsorily to collect theoretical knowledge.

(2) Personalized application: The use of primary information differs from individual to man or woman and thus, artwork is a very personalized concept.

(3) Based on exercise and creativity: Art includes in steady and innovative exercise of current theoretical knowledge.

In administration additionally a large extent of literature and books are accessible on extraordinary factors of management.

Every supervisor has his very own special fashion of managing matters and people.

He makes use of his creativity in making use of administration methods and his abilities enhance with normal application.

Since all the aspects of artwork are existing in management. so it can known as an art.

Management as a Science

Science is a systematized physique of expertise that is primarily based on prevalent truths which can be examined anywhere, anytime.

The elements of Science are as follows:

(1) Systematized physique of knowledge: Science has a systematized body of expertise based totally on ideas and experiments.

(2) Principles primarily based on experiments and observation: Scientific standards are developed thru experiments and observation.

(3) Universal validity: Scientific concepts have conventional validity and application.

Management has systematic physique of information and its ideas are developed over a duration of time based totally on repeated experiments & observations which are universally relevant however they have to be modified in accordance to given situation.

As the ideas of administration are now not as precise as the concepts of pure science, so it may also be called-an inexact science.

The prominence of human component in the administration makes it a Social Science.

Management as Profession

Profession potential an occupation for which specialized understanding and capabilities are required and entry is restricted.

The essential elements of career are as follows:

(1) Well-defined physique of Knowledge: All the professions are primarily based on properly described physique of knowledge.

(2) Restricted Entry: The entry in each and every occupation is limited thru examination or via some minimal academic qualification.

(3) Professional Associations: All professions are affiliated to a expert affiliation which regulates entry and frames code of behavior pertaining to to the profession.

(4) Ethical Code of Conduct: All professions are sure by means of a code of habits which publications the conduct of its members.

(5) Service Motive: The most important intention of a occupation is to serve its clients.

Management does no longer fulfill all the points of a occupation and as a result it is no longer a full-fledged occupation like doctor, lawyer, etc., however very quickly it will be recognized​ as full-fledged profession.

Levels of Management

1. Top Level Management
2. Middle Level Management
3. Lower Level Management

Levels of Management

1. Top Level Management: It Consists of Chairperson, Chief Executive Officer, Chief Operating Officer or equal and their team.

Chief project is to combine and to coordinate the quite a number things to do of the business, framing policies, formulating organizational dreams & strategies.

2. Middle Level Management :

Consists of Divisional or Departmental heads, Plant Superintendents and Operation Managers etc.

Main duties are to interpret the insurance policies of the pinnacle administration to make certain the availability of assets to put into effect policies, to coordinate all activities, make certain availability of crucial personnel & assign obligations and duties to them.

3.Lower Level/Supervisory Level:

Consists of Foremen and supervisor etc.

Main challenge is to make certain authentic implementation of the insurance policies as per directions, carry workers’ grievances earlier than the administration & hold self-discipline amongst the workers.

Functions of Management

1.Planning: Thinking in strengthen what to do, when to do, and who is going to do it. It bridges the hole between the place we are and the place we desire to reach.

2.Organising: organization ability finding out the framework of working how many gadgets and sub-units are needed, how many posts are needed, how to distribute the authority and responsibilities.

3. Staffing: It refers to recruitment, selection, training, improvement and appointment of the employees.

4.Directing: It refers to guiding, instructing, inspiring and motivating the employees.

5.Controlling: This is a fundamental features of management.

Controlling is monitoring the organizational overall performance closer to the attainment of the organizational goals.

Coordination (The Essence of Management)

Coordination is the pressure which synchronizes all the features of administration and things to do of exclusive departments.

Lack of coordination effects in overlapping, duplication, delays and chaos.

It is involved with all the three degrees of administration as if all the tiers of administration are appeared at together, they emerge as a team and as in the case of each and every group, they additionally require coordination amongst themselves.

So, it is no longer a separate feature of management, instead it is the essence of management.

Nature and Significance of Management

l. Coordination integrates crew efforts: It integrates various enterprise things to do into purposeful crew endeavor making sure that all humans work in one route to reap organizational goals.

2. Coordination ensures solidarity of action: It directs the things to do of special departments and employees in the direction of success of frequent dreams and brings team spirit in man or woman efforts.

3. Coordination is a non-stop process: It is no longer a unique undertaking count number it is required at all levels, in all departments until the company continues its operations.

4. Coordination is all pervasive function: It is frequent in nature. It synchronizes the things to do of all tiers and departments as they are interdependent to hold organizational balance.

5. Coordination is the accountability of all managers: It is equally necessary at all the three-top, center and decrease tiers of management.

Thus it is the accountability of all managers that they make efforts to set up coordination.

6. Coordination is a deliberate function: Coordination is by no means hooked up by using itself instead it is a aware effort on the section of each and every manager.

Cooperation is voluntary effort of personnel to assist one another.

Effective coordination can’t be completed besides cooperation of team members.

Related Questions

1. Define management.

2. Name any two important features  of management.

3. Kamal  is the manager of the northern division of a large corporate house. At what level does she work in the organisation? What are his  basic functions?

4. Why is management considered a multi-faceted concept?

5. Discuss the basic features of management as a profession.

Long Answer Type

1. Management is considered to be both an art and science. Explain.

2. Do you think management has the characteristics of a full fledged profession?

3. Coordination is the essence of management. Do you agree? Give reasons.

4. “A successful enterprise has to achieve its goals effectively and efficiently.” Explain.

5. Management is a series of continuous interrelated functions. Comment.